The chair of the Finnish Metalworkers' Union, affiliated to the SAK
confederation, announced in August 1999 that a deal guaranteeing a steady
rise in real wages could be sufficient for the country's next national
incomes policy agreement. At the same time, however, some other SAK
affiliates, such as the Paper Workers' Union, have stressed the importance of
solving sector-specific problems.
In July 1999, the UIMM employers' organisation and the main trade unions -
except CGT - concluded an agreement on a new form of early retirement for
workers employed by French automobile manufacturers and their subsidiaries.
The agreement is contingent on public financing of part of the cost of the
pensions, a question which the government is to decide on in autumn 1999.
In September 1999, the Institute of Labour of Greece's GSEE and the ADEDY
trade union confederations issues its first /Annual economic and employment
outlook/. Such reports have long been produced by employers, the central bank
and the Ministry of National Economy. The report finds that Greece is very
likely to meet the nominal convergence conditions for EMU membership on 1
January 2001, while real convergence is being achieved thanks to an effective
policy of demand management. However, despite rapid economic and employment
growth, the unemployment rate is rising.
The Danish trade union movement lost another union when a substantial
majority of the members of the Danish Union of Graphical Workers (Grafisk
Forbund) - an affiliate of the Danish Federation of Trade Unions,
(Landorganisationen i Danmark, LO) - voted to dissolve the organisation in a
ballot held on 9 June 1999. There was an unusually large turnout for a trade
union ballot, with 82% of the union's 23,000 members voting, and of these 62%
voted to dissolve the union, which had existed in its current form for only
six years. General secretaryTom Durbing and the union leadership had
recommended this course of action, and the general secretary was relieved at
the clear decision.
In 1999, the number of interest groups representing self-employed people
without employees in the Netherlands has rapidly grown, while some trade
unions affiliated to the FNV confederation now also include these individuals
as a target group for recruitment. The increase in self-employment without
staff stems from the healthy economic situation, diminished social security
for employees and perceived greater opportunities for people to apply their
talents in a self-employed capacity. Whether the current trend will continue
in the future remains to be seen.
In July 1999, in preparation for the general election to be held in October,
Portugal's social partner organisations drew up their assessments of the
outgoing legislature and made their demands to the political parties for the
next four-year period.
In August 1999, Italy's main transport workers' trade unions signed an
agreement with the Atac-Cotral group, which is responsible for public
transport services in Rome and Lazio. The most innovative aspect of the
agreement concerns the use of 400 temporary agency workers for a four-month
period starting from September 1999.
In late July 1999, workers at Elf Exploration Production in France, who had
been on strike for over three months, were informed by the company's
management that the redundancy plan proposing major job cuts had been
In July 1999, following earlier allegations of violations of working and
banking hours in Greek banks, the Greek Federation of Bank Employee Unions
(OTOE) lodged a complaint with the Labour Inspectorate against EUROBANK and
On 1 September 1999, 100 years have passed since the two most prominent
social partner confederations in Denmark - the Danish Employers'
Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) and the Danish Confederation
of Trade Unions (Landsordanisationen i Danmark, LO) - concluded the
"September compromise" (Septemberforliget), the first basic agreement on the
regulation of Danish industrial relations. The main principles of this
agreement are still valid. Hardly any other event in recent history has
contributed more than the September compromise to the development of Danish
society as a "consensus society", in which conflicts between groups and
classes are resolved through compromises on the basis of mutual respect.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.