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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    A report entitled Survey evidence on wage rigidity and unemployment: Sweden
    in the 1990s [1] was presented on 29 June 1999. The study is based on two
    surveys, one conducted in 1991, the other in 1998, aiming to explore among
    managers from 157 companies in the Swedish manufacturing industry how a
    severe macroeconomic shock affects wage rigidity and unemployment. The
    research was carried out by two economists, Jonas Agell and Peter Lundborg,
    and funded by the Swedish government's Office of Labour Market Policy
    Evaluation (Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, IFAU). In
    1998, when the second survey was conducted, the unemployment rate was much
    higher and the inflation rate much lower than when the first survey was
    carried out in 1991.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Since 1998, all EU Member States are obliged to draw up annual National
    Action Plans (NAP s) for employment (EU9805107N [1]) based on the EU's
    Employment Guidelines. Member States submitted NAPs for 1999 during summer
    1999, analysing implementation of the 1998 Plans and describing the policy
    adjustments made to incorporate the changes introduced by the 1999 Employment
    Guidelines [2] (EU9810130F [3]). Austria is no exception (AT9802164F [4]) and
    its 1999 NAP [5] was issued in June 1999.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Negotiations between the Swedish Road Transport Employer's Association
    (Biltrafikens Arbetsgivarförbund, BA), and the Swedish Transport Worker's
    Union (Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport) over a new collective
    agreement for taxi drivers and taxi telephone exchange operators finally
    failed on 8 August 1999. On 17 August, Transport gave notice to the taxi-cab
    companies of a blockade of all passenger traffic, including related work at
    the taxi telephone exchanges, to and from the largest Swedish airports -
    Arlanda and Bromma (Stockholm), Landvetter (Gothenburg) and Sturup (Malmö).
    If the subsequent mediation process is not successful, the blockade was due
    to start in the night of 2-3 September 1999. At the time of writing (late
    August) nothing had been reported so far on the work of the two mediators.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In July 1999, the Finnish social partners reached an agreement on some major
    reforms to early retirement and pensions. These reforms, together with the
    programme for older workers and the third stage of a scheme to fund adult
    training out of unemployment insurance, aim to increase the average
    retirement age step by step.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The president of the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) set out three medium-term policy goals in an
    interview with the /Der Standard/ daily newspaper at the end of July 1999:
    more full-time employment; a reduction in spurious self-employment; and
    income-based accession criteria for countries seeking to join the EU. An
    overhaul of the social security system, particularly its financing, and a
    re-evaluation of male and female occupations in terms of pay, were added to
    the list of priorities at the end of August. In the newspaper interview,
    theÖGB president stated that in the short run - the autumn of 1999 - the
    harmonisation of the legal treatment of wage earners and salary earners would
    take top priority (AT9906153N [1]). He did not rule out major demonstrations
    over this issue, estimated to affect 1.2 million people directly, with action
    scheduled for the second week of September, after the school holidays. The
    national general elections to be held on 3 October would not influence the
    ÖGB's determination to push the issue. Other short-term goals are:


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In August 1999, the Finnish government decided that in future unemployed
    people in many districts will have to accept work from a wider geographical
    area than earlier, or lose their benefits. One aim of this change is to
    reduce recruitment bottlenecks. Employers have long been pushing for such
    measures to "activate" unemployed people and alleviate bottlenecks, while
    trade unions wanted to retain the present situation.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In July 1999, the FEB/VBO employers' organisation responded to the coalition
    agreement of Belgium's new government. It welcomes the new coalition's
    intention to reduce employers' social charges, but firmly rejects any
    measures to encourage reductions in working time or any negotiations on this
    subject. The employers also demand structural reforms of social security.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    in late July 1999, the French cabinet approved the second bill on the 35-hour
    week, which follows up the first law on the subject adopted in June 1998. The
    new bill establishes a two-year "adjustment period", in particular for the
    question of overtime payments.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications