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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In late July 1999, a preliminary agreement on an "employment pact for the
    city of Milan" was signed by the city's municipal administration, the trade
    union confederations - with the important exception of Cgil - and the
    employers' associations. Under the deal, September will see the start of
    local-level consultations and dialogue aimed at drawing up pay and employment
    measures to promote the entry into employment of weaker sections of the
    labour force - immigrants, long-term unemployed workers, workers over 40
    expelled from the labour market, and disadvantaged young people. The Milan
    Cgil organisation has pulled out of the talks because it fears that the
    proposals for pay and employment contract flexibility put forward by the city
    council will open the way for more precarious forms of employment.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In August 1999, several Dutch trade union organisations announced plans to
    support their members with financial advice and professional education, thus
    further developing the role of unions away from their traditional collective
    bargaining function.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Summer 1999 saw increasing concern among Portuguese trade unions over a
    number of economic indicators. Although individual income has gone up, the
    inflation rate and the rate of indebtedness of Portuguese families are
    considered to be sources of major concern.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 1 September 1999, 100 years have passed since the two most prominent
    social partner confederations in Denmark - the Danish Employers'
    Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) and the Danish Confederation
    of Trade Unions (Landsordanisationen i Danmark, LO) - concluded the
    "September compromise" (Septemberforliget), the first basic agreement on the
    regulation of Danish industrial relations. The main principles of this
    agreement are still valid. Hardly any other event in recent history has
    contributed more than the September compromise to the development of Danish
    society as a "consensus society", in which conflicts between groups and
    classes are resolved through compromises on the basis of mutual respect.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    At the end of July 1999, a second bargaining session was held between
    representatives of the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and of
    employers' organisations, for the purpose of discussing a reduction of the
    working week to 35 hours without loss of pay. The parties agreed to set up a
    joint committee to consider the matter.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Much comment has been passed on the changing gender composition of trade
    union membership in the UK (UK9712184F [1]) and recent membership figures
    underline these trends. The 1998 Labour Force Survey indicated that union
    membership amongst women had increased by 60,000 on the previous year. Union
    density amongst women in the UK has stabilised at 28%, and women make up
    almost 39% of the UK's total union membership.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In August 1999, Dutch trade unions were angered by the latest evidence of
    increases in senior management salaries far above those awarded to employees
    covered by collective agreements, and the FNV union confederation thus
    threatened to sabotage the Dutch consensus and consultation system (the
    "polder model"). A promise by the VNO-NCW employers' association to urge its
    members to support a moderate wage increase has seemingly warded off the

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Euro-FIET held its annual meeting of representatives of European finance
    workers' trade unions in Portugal in May 1999. The main themes were
    globalisation and the consequences of the euro single currency. The event
    also gave Portuguese unions the opportunity to express their views on these


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications