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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In September 1999, the Institute of Labour of Greece's GSEE and the ADEDY
    trade union confederations issues its first /Annual economic and employment
    outlook/. Such reports have long been produced by employers, the central bank
    and the Ministry of National Economy. The report finds that Greece is very
    likely to meet the nominal convergence conditions for EMU membership on 1
    January 2001, while real convergence is being achieved thanks to an effective
    policy of demand management. However, despite rapid economic and employment
    growth, the unemployment rate is rising.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In August 1999, Italy's main transport workers' trade unions signed an
    agreement with the Atac-Cotral group, which is responsible for public
    transport services in Rome and Lazio. The most innovative aspect of the
    agreement concerns the use of 400 temporary agency workers for a four-month
    period starting from September 1999.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In 1999, the number of interest groups representing self-employed people
    without employees in the Netherlands has rapidly grown, while some trade
    unions affiliated to the FNV confederation now also include these individuals
    as a target group for recruitment. The increase in self-employment without
    staff stems from the healthy economic situation, diminished social security
    for employees and perceived greater opportunities for people to apply their
    talents in a self-employed capacity. Whether the current trend will continue
    in the future remains to be seen.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Danish trade union movement lost another union when a substantial
    majority of the members of the Danish Union of Graphical Workers (Grafisk
    Forbund) - an affiliate of the Danish Federation of Trade Unions,
    (Landorganisationen i Danmark, LO) - voted to dissolve the organisation in a
    ballot held on 9 June 1999. There was an unusually large turnout for a trade
    union ballot, with 82% of the union's 23,000 members voting, and of these 62%
    voted to dissolve the union, which had existed in its current form for only
    six years. General secretaryTom Durbing and the union leadership had
    recommended this course of action, and the general secretary was relieved at
    the clear decision.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In late July 1999, workers at Elf Exploration Production in France, who had
    been on strike for over three months, were informed by the company's
    management that the redundancy plan proposing major job cuts had been

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In July 1999, following earlier allegations of violations of working and
    banking hours in Greek banks, the Greek Federation of Bank Employee Unions
    (OTOE) lodged a complaint with the Labour Inspectorate against EUROBANK and
    ASPIS Bank.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Summer 1999 saw increasing concern among Portuguese trade unions over a
    number of economic indicators. Although individual income has gone up, the
    inflation rate and the rate of indebtedness of Portuguese families are
    considered to be sources of major concern.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 4 August 1999, the trade and industry secretary Stephen Byers published a
    consultation document setting out the government's proposals for a statutory
    right for working parents to take parental leave and for improved maternity
    leave arrangements. The legislation will take the form of Regulations, and
    will take effect from 15 December 1999 - the deadline for implementing the
    requirements of the EU Council Directive on parental leave (96/34/EC) [1].


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In late July 1999, a preliminary agreement on an "employment pact for the
    city of Milan" was signed by the city's municipal administration, the trade
    union confederations - with the important exception of Cgil - and the
    employers' associations. Under the deal, September will see the start of
    local-level consultations and dialogue aimed at drawing up pay and employment
    measures to promote the entry into employment of weaker sections of the
    labour force - immigrants, long-term unemployed workers, workers over 40
    expelled from the labour market, and disadvantaged young people. The Milan
    Cgil organisation has pulled out of the talks because it fears that the
    proposals for pay and employment contract flexibility put forward by the city
    council will open the way for more precarious forms of employment.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications