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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In a recent high-profile incident, a Muslim woman of Lebanese origin was
    rejected for employment by Denmark's two largest supermarket chains because
    she refused, if employed, to remove the headscarf that she wore according to
    Muslim tradition. The woman concerned, Maria Mawla, brought the matter to to
    attention of the press in late July 1999. The national supermarket chains
    concerned - the Danish Consumer Cooperative (Forenede Danske Brugsforeninger,
    FDB) and Dansk Supermarked- refused to employ Muslim women in headscarves to
    work at check-out desks or other visible places in their outlets. They
    claimed that: individual headgear is contrary to their ways and customs;
    headscarves are unhygienic and not compatible with the stores' principles
    concerning uniforms; and the presence of staff in headscarves may put off
    many customers.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    A new paper from the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which maps out
    "new ways" for trade unions to deal with challenges posed by the new
    millennium, suggests that even if the social partners fail to agree a
    centralised agreement to replace the current three-year Partnership 2000 [1]
    (P2000) national agreement (IE9702103F [2]), "partnership" remains a viable
    alternative to adversarialism. The paper, entitled /Challenges facing unions
    and Irish society in the new millennium/, was unveiled at the ICTU's
    two-yearly conference which took place in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999
    (IE9907285N [3]).


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Historically, the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei
    Deutschlands, SPD) and the German socialist trade unions, as opposed to the
    Christian and liberal unions, have the same roots in the labour movement of
    the second half of the 19th century. Since then, the Social Democrats and the
    trade unions have maintained close links.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    As Greece endured a heatwave during August 1999, the GSEE trade union
    confederation issued guidance on the measures which must be taken to combat
    heat exhaustion among workers, while the construction workers' union issued
    its own special recommendations.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Norwegian government appointed new members to the Technical Calculating
    Committee on Income Settlements (Teknisk Beregningsutvalg for
    Inntektsoppgjørene, TBU) on 25 June 1999, an event which saw the inclusion
    of additional representatives from social partner organisations. The TBU is a
    body which works out a common analytical basis for wage settlements by, among
    other things, estimating wage growth and the wage "carry-over" in different
    sectors. The committee also provides evaluations of issues such as
    developments in real income and national competitiveness. The committee does
    not, however, comment on the coming wage settlements.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In early June 1999, British Steel and the Dutch steel producer Hoogovens
    announced their intention to merge in a deal valued at GBP 3.9 billion. The
    merged entity will be the largest steel firm in Europe and the third biggest
    in the world, producing 22.5 million tonnes of steel per year. As the larger
    of the two parties, British Steel's shareholders will hold a 61.7% stake in
    the new group, while those of Hoogovens, including the Dutch government, will
    hold the remainder. The merger follows other cross-border tie-ups in the
    European steel industry: Usinor of France has joined forces with
    Cockerill-Sambre of Belgium (BE9812158N [1]), while Arbed of Luxembourg and
    Aceralia of Spain have also merged.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO)
    reportedly wants to change the fundamental structure of Danish industrial
    relations, according to a proposal which is still before the confederation's
    executive committee for approval. It seeks the abolition of the employers'
    right to direct and divide the work, enshrined in the basic agreement [1]
    (hovedaftalen) with the Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk
    Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) which determines the fundamental rules of the
    labour market, as well as a wider revision of the agreement. The background
    to this proposal, entitled /Welfare is an obligation/, is that LO wants
    greater flexibility in industrial relations, whereby employees and employer
    at the individual workplace level would enter into a contract which
    determines the quantity of work the employees have to perform and the payment
    for this work. It is stated in the introduction to the proposal that "this
    contract should also deal with the working environment, social
    considerations, the division of profits etc. Accordingly, it would be up to
    the wage earners collectively to direct and divide the work and the payment".


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    At the end of June 1999, trade unions and employers in private sector
    industry appointed eight impartial chairs for their forthcoming collective
    bargaining round. Under the March 1997 agreement on cooperation and pay
    regulation in the industry sector (SE9703110N [1]), such impartial chairs on
    their own initiative join the negotiations over a new collective agreement
    one month before the existing agreement is to expire and ensure that the
    negotiations end in due time. The 1997 agreement was signed by eight trade
    union federations and 12 employers' associations, representing some 10,000
    companies and 800,000 employees. The aims of the agreement include the
    conclusion of new collective agreements without any strikes or lock-outs.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The president of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), Sir Clive
    Thompson, has sparked controversy by warning that the much-discussed concept
    of partnership may be hiding a "damaging build-up of trade union influence".
    His remarks, made in a speech to an audience of employers on 23 June 1999,
    have been strongly criticised by union leaders and have highlighted the
    diverging interpretations placed on the idea of partnership by different
    groups of practitioners and policymakers. The Trades Union Congress (TUC) has
    been actively promoting the concept of union-based partnership at work, but
    the government and employers' organisations are unwilling to accept that
    partnership arrangements necessarily require union involvement (UK9906108F



  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications