At the end of July 1999, a second bargaining session was held between
representatives of the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and of
employers' organisations, for the purpose of discussing a reduction of the
working week to 35 hours without loss of pay. The parties agreed to set up a
joint committee to consider the matter.
In a recent high-profile incident, a Muslim woman of Lebanese origin was
rejected for employment by Denmark's two largest supermarket chains because
she refused, if employed, to remove the headscarf that she wore according to
Muslim tradition. The woman concerned, Maria Mawla, brought the matter to to
attention of the press in late July 1999. The national supermarket chains
concerned - the Danish Consumer Cooperative (Forenede Danske Brugsforeninger,
FDB) and Dansk Supermarked- refused to employ Muslim women in headscarves to
work at check-out desks or other visible places in their outlets. They
claimed that: individual headgear is contrary to their ways and customs;
headscarves are unhygienic and not compatible with the stores' principles
concerning uniforms; and the presence of staff in headscarves may put off
Euro-FIET held its annual meeting of representatives of European finance
workers' trade unions in Portugal in May 1999. The main themes were
globalisation and the consequences of the euro single currency. The event
also gave Portuguese unions the opportunity to express their views on these
Much comment has been passed on the changing gender composition of trade
union membership in the UK (UK9712184F ) and recent membership figures
underline these trends. The 1998 Labour Force Survey indicated that union
membership amongst women had increased by 60,000 on the previous year. Union
density amongst women in the UK has stabilised at 28%, and women make up
almost 39% of the UK's total union membership.
Under an agreement signed in July 1999, telework is to be introduced in the
Italian public administration, initially on an experimental basis.
Participation will be voluntary and teleworkers will be guaranteed the same
rights and opportunities as other workers.
In August 1999, Dutch trade unions were angered by the latest evidence of
increases in senior management salaries far above those awarded to employees
covered by collective agreements, and the FNV union confederation thus
threatened to sabotage the Dutch consensus and consultation system (the
"polder model"). A promise by the VNO-NCW employers' association to urge its
members to support a moderate wage increase has seemingly warded off the
A new paper from the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which maps out
"new ways" for trade unions to deal with challenges posed by the new
millennium, suggests that even if the social partners fail to agree a
centralised agreement to replace the current three-year Partnership 2000 
(P2000) national agreement (IE9702103F ), "partnership" remains a viable
alternative to adversarialism. The paper, entitled /Challenges facing unions
and Irish society in the new millennium/, was unveiled at the ICTU's
two-yearly conference which took place in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999
Historically, the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei
Deutschlands, SPD) and the German socialist trade unions, as opposed to the
Christian and liberal unions, have the same roots in the labour movement of
the second half of the 19th century. Since then, the Social Democrats and the
trade unions have maintained close links.
As Greece endured a heatwave during August 1999, the GSEE trade union
confederation issued guidance on the measures which must be taken to combat
heat exhaustion among workers, while the construction workers' union issued
its own special recommendations.
The Norwegian government appointed new members to the Technical Calculating
Committee on Income Settlements (Teknisk Beregningsutvalg for
Inntektsoppgjørene, TBU) on 25 June 1999, an event which saw the inclusion
of additional representatives from social partner organisations. The TBU is a
body which works out a common analytical basis for wage settlements by, among
other things, estimating wage growth and the wage "carry-over" in different
sectors. The committee also provides evaluations of issues such as
developments in real income and national competitiveness. The committee does
not, however, comment on the coming wage settlements.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.