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  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In late May 1999, the Dutch Minister of Health and State Secretary for Social
    Affairs adopted a standpoint on the issue of privatised healthcare and
    possible priority treatment for employees. Politicians have thus given the
    green light for offering employees specialised care on a commercial basis for
    work-related medical complaints. Private outpatient centres have long offered
    specialised care, treating problems such as stress and "burn-out".

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 14 July 1999, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled A
    concerted strategy for modernising social protection [1] (COM(99)347 final).
    The Communication emphasises the key role played by social protection systems
    in supporting public health and well-being and in redistributing wealth. It
    is argued that, without social security transfers, nearly 40% of EU
    households would be living in relative poverty (compared with the actual rate
    of 17%). Spending on social protection accounts for an average of 28.5% of


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, the joint employer-trade union administrative board of France's
    National Sickness Insurance Fund (CNAM) approved, by a large majority, a
    strategic reform plan. This package of measures is designed to reduce
    spending and improve the quality of healthcare. CNAM hopes that the
    government will give legislative effect to the plan.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In June 1999, the Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) expressed its
    total opposition to proposals from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to
    reduce the wages of new entrants to the labour market and to cut labour

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In summer 1999, at the half-way point of the Spanish social partners'
    four-year pact for employment stability, later endorsed by parliament, the
    parties have evaluated its results. After two years, employment - and
    especially stable employment - has increased significantly. However, there
    has been no substantial decrease in the level of temporary employment and
    contract turnover continues to increase.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    Negotiations have been going on for several months between the Belgian
    Bankers' Association (BVB/ABB) and the various trade unions involved -
    ACV/CSC, ABVV/FGTB and ACLVB/CGSLB- on a new national collective agreement
    for the banking sector. However, the talks became completely deadlocked in
    June 1999. The trade unions had already called several short stoppages and
    lightning strikes, but discontent about the failure to secure an agreement
    continued to mount and a one-day national strike was organised by the unions
    for 9 July.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The ninth European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) Congress held in Helsinki
    from 29 June to 2 July 1999 (EU9907182F [1]) arguably indicated the European
    trade union movement's wish for far-reaching harmonisation in the area of
    social and employment policy. In the eyes of Danish public debate, the
    Congress presented an emerging picture of a trade union movement which wants
    to head a process towards, if not the "United Nations of Europe", then at
    least a strengthening of the federal features of the European Union. Even
    though the Danish public's attitude towards the EU has grown more positive
    (DK9906127F [2]), there is general scepticism about an extensive process of
    integration. This became evident at the European Parliament elections in June
    1999, at which the Danish parties and movements which are directly opposed
    to, or strongly sceptical towards, the EU maintained their support.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 2 July 1999, the provisions of the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 [1]
    were brought into force, one year after receiving Royal Assent (UK9807137N
    [2]). The Act has been described as the most far-reaching "whistleblowing"
    legislation in the world. It provides remedies to workers who are dismissed
    or subjected to detriment by their employer for making certain categories of
    disclosure, ie a disclosure of information which, in the reasonable belief of
    the worker making the disclosure, concerns:


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In June 1999, an agreement was signed on the reorganisation of Rome's public
    environmental services company, Ama, leading to differences between the three
    main trade union confederations. Cisl and Uil disagree with Cgil on the way
    in which 2,200 people will be recruited by the newly-established company, Ama

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The total number of requests to terminate employment contracts declined in
    the Netherlands in 1998, according to the Annual Report on termination
    statistics, issued in summer 1999. However, the number of requests related to
    occupational disability has increased.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications