Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    As is the case every year on the same date, the hourly rate of France's
    statutory minimum wage (SMIC) was increased on 1 July 1999. In light of the
    move to the statutory 35-hour working week on 1 January 2000, the government
    deviated from its practice of announcing a greater increase in the SMIC than
    that provided for by the legislation. The creation of of a wage supplement
    for those employees who have moved to the 35-hour week means that there will
    be two parallel monthly SMIC rates for some time.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    A survey of the most important collective agreements signed in the
    Netherlands so far in 1999, published in June, finds moderate average pay
    increases of 2.7%. The number of agreements on training, flexible pension
    schemes and the accumulation time off has increased in recent years. While
    employers and, to a lesser extent, trade unions are in agreement on the
    issues to be addressed in negotiations during the coming year, both sides
    criticise aspects of the Netherlands' consultation and consensus-based system
    - the "polder model".

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    From 29 June to 2 July 1999, 500 delegates from 33 countries attended the
    ninth Statutory Congress of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) in
    Helsinki. Issues debated ranged from the importance of combining Economic and
    Monetary Union with employment and social progress, to the role of trade
    unions in a changing world of work, equality of opportunity, union
    participation in the process of enlargement and the provision of aid for
    economic and democratic reconstruction in Kosovo.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    At the end of 1998, membership of the Austrian Trade Union Federation
    (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) stood at 1,480,016, or 17,568
    less than at the end of 1997. This is a reduction of 1.2%. The number of
    women members decreased by 0.7% to 471,091, while the number of men fell by
    1.4% to 1,008,925. The share of women among ÖGB members thus climbed to
    31.8%, the highest since 1945. The number of young people (below the age of
    22) and apprentices increased by 4.2% to 51,972, after having fallen below
    50,000 in 1997. The number of (white-collar) salary earners in membership
    dropped by 1.0%, compared with 4.2% in 1997. In the public sector (including
    the railways and posts/telecommunications) membership declined by 2,228 or
    0.4% to 588,269 while the number of (blue-collar) wage earners in the private
    sector declined by 12,038 or 2.0% to 577,501 following a loss of 2.9% in

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 7 July 1999, the trade and industry secretary Stephen Byers, initiated
    consultations with employer and trade union organisations on two proposed
    amendments to the Working Time Regulations 1998, which seek to implement the
    EU working time Directive (93/104/EC). The amendments - relating to the scope
    of the derogation for "unmeasured working time" and the record-keeping
    requirements for workers who have signed an "individual opt-out" from the
    48-hour limit on average weekly working hours - are intended to "help
    employers come to terms with the Regulations". The government's move follows
    extensive complaints from employers' groups that the working time
    Regulations, which came into force in October 1998 (UK9810154F [1]), have led
    to confusion and increased bureaucracy.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, the general council of Italy's Cisl trade union confederation
    decided on a major restructuring of its sectoral federations, which will
    reduce the number of affiliates from 36 to 11.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    It is expected that the fate of the Forges de Clabecq steelworks will be
    sealed on 15 June 1997. However, whatever the outcome of the recovery
    operation by the Swiss-Italian industrial concern, Duferco, something will
    have changed in this Belgian enterprise located some 15 miles from Brussels
    in the province of Brabant. Beyond the event in itself - the closure of a
    firm leading to the loss of 1,800 jobs - which has not itself been
    exceptional over the last few months in Belgium, it is the style of activity
    undertaken by the Forges de Clabecq union delegation [1] that has revealed a
    new union climate.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In June 1999, the Institute of Labour of the Greek General Confederation of
    Labour (INE-GSEE) published a study examining the prevalent orthodox thinking
    in Greece that increases in real wages reduce profitability, investments,
    employment and competitiveness. The study claims that this belief is not
    borne out by the statistical data for Greece.

  • CAR
    27 Červenec 1999

    /It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
    within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
    aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
    of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
    Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
    dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
    explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
    collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
    examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
    focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
    partners are summarised./


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications