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  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 21 July 1999, the general council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC)
    pledged its support for a campaign [1] organised by the Transport and General
    Workers' Union (TGWU) to try to win reinstatement for 270 workers sacked in
    November 1998 by the Lufthansa-owned airline catering company Skychefs.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    After eight months of difficult negotiations, on 8 June 1999, Fim-Cisl,
    Fiom-Cgil and Uilm-Uil, the metalworkers' unions belonging to the three main
    trade union confederations, and the employers' associations Federmeccanica
    and Assistal accepted a mediation proposal put forward by the Minister of
    Labour, aimed at concluding the renewal of the collective agreement for the
    Italian metalworking industry. During June and July, the procedure for
    approval of the agreement involved consultation of trade union members on the
    Ministry of Labour's proposal, and a referendum of all workers on the text of
    the agreement agreed by the parties in June. In both consultations, the
    majority of votes were cast in favour of the agreement, which opened the way
    for its definitive signing.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In late May 1999, the VOO parents' organisation proposed implementing a
    four-day working week in Dutch primary education as the only plausible way to
    reduce working time in the sector. The issue of how to cope with ongoing
    working time cuts at a time of teacher shortages has caused concern in
    parliament, while one parents' association has unsuccessfully challenged in
    the courts a school's decision to introduce a four-day week every other week.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, four weeks of strike action by 130 midwives ended when members
    of the midwives' trade union (Den almindelige Danske Jordmoderforening, DADJ)
    voted by a large majority to accept the collective agreement which DADJ had
    negotiated with the Association of County Authorities (Amtsrådsforeningen)
    and Copenhagen's joint hospital administration (Hovedstadens
    Sygehusfællesskab, HS). More than 60% of the union's members voted in the
    ballot and more than 71% of those voting were in favour of the proposed

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, in an unusual event, Spanish prison officers went on strike to
    demand "better wages, an increase in staffing and more respect".

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, management and trade unions at the RATP Parisian public
    transport network reached an agreement on the means by which the company will
    move to the 35-hour working week.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, the collective agreement archive of the Institute for Economic
    and Social Research (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI)
    within the Hans-Böckler Foundation published an interim report on the 1999
    collective bargaining round ("Die Drei vor dem Komma. Eine Zwischenbilanz der
    Lohn- und Gehaltsrunde 1999", Reinhard Bispinck/WSI-Tarifarchiv, WSI
    Informationen zur Tarifpolitik, Juli 1999). According to the WSI study,
    collective bargaining has almost exclusively concerned wages and salaries in
    1999, with other issues playing only a minor role. This is mainly because
    trade unions have concentrated their demands very much on pay claims. After
    some years of only very moderate increases, which sometimes even included
    decreases in real pay, several unions called for an "end of modesty" and
    entered the 1999 bargaining round with pay claims between 5.5% and 6.5%
    (DE9810279F [1]). Employers' associations, however, constantly rejected such
    demands and, instead, argued for a continuation of a policy of wage


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The revised national Budget for 1999 was passed by the Norwegian parliament
    (Stortinget) on 18 June 1999. The annual procedure for revising the Budget
    enables the government to adjust its economic policy in the light of
    developments that have taken place since the release of the Budget in the
    autumn of the previous year (NO9811100N [1]). In conjunction with the revised
    national Budget, the government also produced an up-to-date analysis of state
    of affairs of the national economy. Statistics Norway (Statistisk
    Sentralbyrå, SSB) and the Bank of Norway (Norges Bank) have also published
    their own economic analysis for spring 1999.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    A conference in June 1999 examined "regional employment networks" in
    Portugal. These networks have been growing in importance as means for
    implementing labour market policies, in line with the objectives of the
    National Action Plan for employment. The social partners have been involved
    in various ways, mostly at the strategic and economic level.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications