On 21 June 1999, the temporary employment agency Adecco
Personaldienstleistungen GmbH and a bargaining cartel of six trade unions
signed a "collective agreement on the hiring-out of labour on the occasion of
the EXPO 2000 world exhibition" (Tarifvertrag zur Arbeitnehmerüberlassung
anläßlich der Weltausstellung EXPO 2000 ).The unions involved were the
IG Metall metalworkers' union, the Food and Restaurants Workers' Union
(Gewerkschaft Nahrung Genuß Gaststätten, NGG), the Building, Agriculture
and Environmental Union (IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt), the Trading, Banking and
Insurance Union (Gewerkschaft Handel Banken und Versicherungen, HBV), the
Public Services, Transport and Traffic Union (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche
Dienste, Transport und Verkehr, ÖTV) and the German White-Collar Workers'
Union (Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, DAG) The agreement will cover
approximately about 7,000 employees who will be recruited by Adecco in order
to work at the EXPO 2000 exhibition, which will take place in Hanover from 1
June until 31 October 2000. Adecco is the exclusive provider of personnel
services to EXPO 2000 Hannover GmbH, the company which is responsible for the
overall organisation of the world exhibition.
Following the publication of statistics indicating a sharp rise in
unemployment in Greece, and government analyses of the connection between
unemployment and the increased presence of immigrants, the GSEE trade union
confederation has reiterated its positions on addressing rising unemployment
and on dealing with economic immigrants.
The Confederation of Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund,
YS) held its eighth national conference  on 15-16 June 1999. The YS chair,
Randi Bjørgen was re-elected for a second period, and at the top of the
agenda was the proposed creation of a new trade union confederation with the
Confederation of Academic and Professional Associations (Akademikernes
Fellesorganisasjon, AF). In her opening speech, Ms Bjørgen also announced
willingness for closer cooperation with the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO). The Confederation of Norwegian
Business and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) was heavily
criticised for allegedly undermining the legitimacy of the national system of
An analysis of labour disputes in 1998, published by the Office for National
Statistics in the June 1999 issue of /Labour Market Trends/, showed that
strike activity remains at its lowest level since records began in 1891. The
number of recorded disputes was the smallest ever and the number of workers
involved the fewest for 70 years, while the number of days not worked because
of industrial action was lower than in every previous year except 1997.
Stoppages in summer 1998 on the railways and the London Underground
(UK9806132N ) accounted for much of the latter figure.
Under a national health service reform approved in June 1999, the role and
work of Italian doctors is set to change. "Meritocracy" and training will
become the key factors in career advancement, while a single job grade for
senior doctors will be introduced, and doctors must choose whether or not to
work exclusively in the public sector.
In a ruling issued on 8 June 1999, the Supreme Court (Højesteret) rejected
the argument that it should be illegal for trade unions and employers'
organisations to conclude closed-shop agreements. Under such agreements, in
order to be able to work at a certain workplace, an employee has to be a
member of the trade union with which the employer has concluded the
closed-shop agreement. The ruling came in case against the Danish Cooperative
Society (Foreningen af Danske Brugser, FDB), brought by Denmark's Free Trade
Union (Danmarks Frie Fagforening, DFF) on grounds of alleged violation of the
Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms by operating a closed-shop agreement. In its ruling, the
Supreme Court clearly rejected the idea that such a violation had occurred.
Since the UK introduced its National Minimum Wage in April 1999 (UK9904196F
), Ireland is the only EU Member State that currently has no provisions
for either a statutory or collectively agreed national minimum wage, or a
system of legally-binding industry-level collective agreements setting
minimum pay rates across almost all sectors of the economy. Not for long,
however: the current Fianna Fail/Progressive Democrat coalition government
has committed itself to introducing a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April
2000. A rate of IEP 4.40 per hour for full-time adult workers (and IEP 3.08
for those aged under 18) has been proposed, following the publication of a
report by the National Minimum Wage Commission (NMWC) in April 1998
In July 1999, the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
published new figures on the development of annual incomes in the
manufacturing sector. According to the statistics, a full-time employee in
manufacturing earned an average of DEM 68,646 in 1998, including collectively
agreed annual income as well as other annual bonuses (Christmas bonus,
holiday bonus, annual profit-sharing payments etc). In comparison with the
previous year, average income increased by about 2.6% in 1998.
Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
- will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.
On 2 July 1999, the UK's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) published
draft Regulations  to implement the EU European Works Councils (s)
Directive  in the UK, together with a consultation document  seeking
views on the government's proposed approach. After further refinement, and
subject to approval by parliament, the Transnational Information and
Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 will come into force on 15
December 1999 - the deadline set by the 1997 Directive  which reversed the
previous UK government's "opt-out" from the original EWCs Directive.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report offers a backward look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey ‘ Living, working and COVID-19’ which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through four rounds of the survey (two in 2020 and two in 2021), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
Platform work – the matching of supply of and demand for paid labour through an online platform or app – is gaining increasing importance in Europe. It has attracted policy attention due to its inherent opportunities and challenges. Across Europe, initiatives have been introduced by governments, social partners and grassroots organisations aimed at harnessing the potential and reducing the risks of this employment form. The areas covered include regulation, representation, advice and information provision, as well as measures addressing social protection, ratings and training.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.