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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Norwegian government appointed new members to the Technical Calculating
    Committee on Income Settlements (Teknisk Beregningsutvalg for
    Inntektsoppgjørene, TBU) on 25 June 1999, an event which saw the inclusion
    of additional representatives from social partner organisations. The TBU is a
    body which works out a common analytical basis for wage settlements by, among
    other things, estimating wage growth and the wage "carry-over" in different
    sectors. The committee also provides evaluations of issues such as
    developments in real income and national competitiveness. The committee does
    not, however, comment on the coming wage settlements.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    In early June 1999, British Steel and the Dutch steel producer Hoogovens
    announced their intention to merge in a deal valued at GBP 3.9 billion. The
    merged entity will be the largest steel firm in Europe and the third biggest
    in the world, producing 22.5 million tonnes of steel per year. As the larger
    of the two parties, British Steel's shareholders will hold a 61.7% stake in
    the new group, while those of Hoogovens, including the Dutch government, will
    hold the remainder. The merger follows other cross-border tie-ups in the
    European steel industry: Usinor of France has joined forces with
    Cockerill-Sambre of Belgium (BE9812158N [1]), while Arbed of Luxembourg and
    Aceralia of Spain have also merged.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO)
    reportedly wants to change the fundamental structure of Danish industrial
    relations, according to a proposal which is still before the confederation's
    executive committee for approval. It seeks the abolition of the employers'
    right to direct and divide the work, enshrined in the basic agreement [1]
    (hovedaftalen) with the Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk
    Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) which determines the fundamental rules of the
    labour market, as well as a wider revision of the agreement. The background
    to this proposal, entitled /Welfare is an obligation/, is that LO wants
    greater flexibility in industrial relations, whereby employees and employer
    at the individual workplace level would enter into a contract which
    determines the quantity of work the employees have to perform and the payment
    for this work. It is stated in the introduction to the proposal that "this
    contract should also deal with the working environment, social
    considerations, the division of profits etc. Accordingly, it would be up to
    the wage earners collectively to direct and divide the work and the payment".


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 20 April 1999, the first senate of the German Federal Labour Court
    (Bundesarbeitsgericht, BAG) issued a judgment (/1 ABR 72/98/) which
    acknowledged the right of trade unions to bring court cases against employers
    which they accuse of operating a company arrangement that contravenes a
    collective agreement in force. In July 1999, the BAG published a
    comprehensive written statement in which it sets out the reasons for its
    judgment. According to the statement, trade unions have the right to ask that
    employers cease an unlawful company arrangement in order to safeguard the
    unions' constitutional right to freedom of association [1]


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union (SIPTU), Ireland's
    largest trade union, is in the process of establishing its own internal
    employee forum which is separate from the traditional industrial relations
    processes within the union. The role of SIPTU's staff representative council,
    which deals with industrial relations issues such as pay and conditions, is
    to remain unchanged.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet) and the
    Norwegian Society of Engineers (Norges Ingeniørforbund, NITO) have concluded
    an agreement to collaborate. Fellesforbundet is the largest member union in
    the private sector of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO), and unionises among others blue-collar
    workers in large parts of manufacturing industry as well as the building and
    construction sector. NITO has approximately 45,000 members, 60% of whom work
    in the private sector. NITO is leaving its present confederation, the
    Confederation of Norwegian Professional Associations (Akademikernes
    Fellesorganisasjon, AF) at the end of 1999, and has so far not made clear its
    future confederal affiliation (NO9901111N [1]). It is doubtful that NITO
    regards LO as an option in this regard, although the cooperation agreement
    with Fellesforbundet shows an expressed willingness to strengthen its
    cooperation with LO in the private sector. The two organisations have
    cooperated on an informal basis for a long time.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Around 450 hospital orderlies and cleaners at three hospitals in the county
    of Frederiksborg went on strike on 16 August 1999 in protest against a
    proposal by the county council - headed by county mayor,Lars Lykke Rasmussen-
    that all hospital orderly and cleaning work should be put out to tender by
    private companies. The unofficial strike was a culmination of a long period
    of dissatisfaction with statements from counties and municipalities in the
    metropolitan area that they will outsource a large number of public tasks to
    the private sector to achieve budget cuts. The Danish Confederation of Trade
    Unions (Landsorganisationen Danmark, LO) organisation in the Copenhagen area
    stated that the outsourcing plans indicated disdain for the municipal and
    county employees and their performance over many years, and warned directly
    that labour disputes might occur.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 27 May 1999, negotiators for the Federation of Salaried Employees in
    Industry and Services (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK) - the bargaining
    cartel for white-collar workers' unions in the private sector - announced
    that they could not accept a final offer from the Swedish Employers'
    Confederation (Svenska arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) on a new "contribution
    pension" agreement. This agreement would have replaced the existing agreement
    on the supplementary pension scheme for salaried employees in industry and
    services (Industrins och handelns tilläggspensionför tjänstemän,ITP). The
    negotiations over a new collective agreement on the ITP had been continuing
    on off for almost five years, since 1994, and they failed because the trade
    unions could not come to an understanding among themselves. Two of the
    leading unions within PTK, representing more than half of the 620,000
    employees covered by the ITP scheme, refused to accept. The other 26 unions
    within the cartel decided, after long discussions, to follow this refusal,
    although they had initially accepted the offer. The dissenting unions were
    the Union for Technical and Clerical Employees in Industry (Svenska
    Industritjänstemannaförbundet, SIF) and the Association of Management and
    Professional Staff (Ledarna).

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    An agreement on teleworking was concluded in June 1999 between the
    state-owned Norwegian oil company Statoil and the Norwegian Oil and
    Petrochemical Workers Union (Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Nopef).


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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