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  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet) and the
    Norwegian Society of Engineers (Norges Ingeniørforbund, NITO) have concluded
    an agreement to collaborate. Fellesforbundet is the largest member union in
    the private sector of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO), and unionises among others blue-collar
    workers in large parts of manufacturing industry as well as the building and
    construction sector. NITO has approximately 45,000 members, 60% of whom work
    in the private sector. NITO is leaving its present confederation, the
    Confederation of Norwegian Professional Associations (Akademikernes
    Fellesorganisasjon, AF) at the end of 1999, and has so far not made clear its
    future confederal affiliation (NO9901111N [1]). It is doubtful that NITO
    regards LO as an option in this regard, although the cooperation agreement
    with Fellesforbundet shows an expressed willingness to strengthen its
    cooperation with LO in the private sector. The two organisations have
    cooperated on an informal basis for a long time.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Around 450 hospital orderlies and cleaners at three hospitals in the county
    of Frederiksborg went on strike on 16 August 1999 in protest against a
    proposal by the county council - headed by county mayor,Lars Lykke Rasmussen-
    that all hospital orderly and cleaning work should be put out to tender by
    private companies. The unofficial strike was a culmination of a long period
    of dissatisfaction with statements from counties and municipalities in the
    metropolitan area that they will outsource a large number of public tasks to
    the private sector to achieve budget cuts. The Danish Confederation of Trade
    Unions (Landsorganisationen Danmark, LO) organisation in the Copenhagen area
    stated that the outsourcing plans indicated disdain for the municipal and
    county employees and their performance over many years, and warned directly
    that labour disputes might occur.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 27 May 1999, negotiators for the Federation of Salaried Employees in
    Industry and Services (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK) - the bargaining
    cartel for white-collar workers' unions in the private sector - announced
    that they could not accept a final offer from the Swedish Employers'
    Confederation (Svenska arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) on a new "contribution
    pension" agreement. This agreement would have replaced the existing agreement
    on the supplementary pension scheme for salaried employees in industry and
    services (Industrins och handelns tilläggspensionför tjänstemän,ITP). The
    negotiations over a new collective agreement on the ITP had been continuing
    on off for almost five years, since 1994, and they failed because the trade
    unions could not come to an understanding among themselves. Two of the
    leading unions within PTK, representing more than half of the 620,000
    employees covered by the ITP scheme, refused to accept. The other 26 unions
    within the cartel decided, after long discussions, to follow this refusal,
    although they had initially accepted the offer. The dissenting unions were
    the Union for Technical and Clerical Employees in Industry (Svenska
    Industritjänstemannaförbundet, SIF) and the Association of Management and
    Professional Staff (Ledarna).

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    An agreement on teleworking was concluded in June 1999 between the
    state-owned Norwegian oil company Statoil and the Norwegian Oil and
    Petrochemical Workers Union (Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Nopef).

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Statistics presented in June 1999 and produced by Statistics Sweden
    (Statistiska Centralbyrån) in cooperation with the Swedish National Board
    for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), show a 9% fall in the
    establishment of new companies between 1997 and 1998. In 1998, a total of
    33,860 new companies were started, compared with 37,040 in 1997. For the
    preceding years, the corresponding figures were: 1996 - 36,010; 1995 -
    35,000; and 1994 - 34,670. The new companies created 55,200 new jobs in 1998,
    of which 26,000 were full-time jobs, the statistics also show. The equivalent
    figures for 1997 were 63,000 new jobs and 32,300 full-time jobs. The
    reduction has been most evident in the northern counties of Sweden - 22% in
    Gävleborg, 20% in Västernorrland and 16% in Västerbotten. The statistics
    are based on genuine new start-ups involving the establishment of new
    activities. The statistics do not include changes of ownership or of legal
    status, or other restructuring.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 20 July 1999, the government decided to finance the training of up to
    4,000 young people, if they cannot find training places with employers in
    1999-2000. This is the same allocation as for 1998-9 (AT9803175N [1]), when
    3,600 young people were placed - 2,100 in 10-month training courses and 1,500
    in three-year "apprenticeship-foundation" courses. Training course
    participants must have a ninth-grade school-leaving diploma (the ninth grade
    is around 15 years of age) and receive about half the regular apprentice's
    remuneration, while foundation course participants have not usually completed
    the ninth grade and receive three-quarters of the normal apprentice's


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The dispute between the Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS) and its ground
    staff was resolved after a meeting between management and trade union
    representatives on 9 August 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. On 14 July 1999,
    Norwegian ground staff who are members of the SAS Personnel Club (SAS
    Personalklubb) had resorted to industrial action, and refused to work
    overtime, in protest against the airline's possible plans to increase company
    earnings by means of outsourcing approximately 7,000 jobs in Norway, Sweden
    and Denmark (NO9907143N [1]). More SAS employees joined the strike on 27


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    A report entitled Survey evidence on wage rigidity and unemployment: Sweden
    in the 1990s [1] was presented on 29 June 1999. The study is based on two
    surveys, one conducted in 1991, the other in 1998, aiming to explore among
    managers from 157 companies in the Swedish manufacturing industry how a
    severe macroeconomic shock affects wage rigidity and unemployment. The
    research was carried out by two economists, Jonas Agell and Peter Lundborg,
    and funded by the Swedish government's Office of Labour Market Policy
    Evaluation (Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, IFAU). In
    1998, when the second survey was conducted, the unemployment rate was much
    higher and the inflation rate much lower than when the first survey was
    carried out in 1991.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Since 1998, all EU Member States are obliged to draw up annual National
    Action Plans (NAP s) for employment (EU9805107N [1]) based on the EU's
    Employment Guidelines. Member States submitted NAPs for 1999 during summer
    1999, analysing implementation of the 1998 Plans and describing the policy
    adjustments made to incorporate the changes introduced by the 1999 Employment
    Guidelines [2] (EU9810130F [3]). Austria is no exception (AT9802164F [4]) and
    its 1999 NAP [5] was issued in June 1999.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

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