The Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet) and the
Norwegian Society of Engineers (Norges Ingeniørforbund, NITO) have concluded
an agreement to collaborate. Fellesforbundet is the largest member union in
the private sector of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
(Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO), and unionises among others blue-collar
workers in large parts of manufacturing industry as well as the building and
construction sector. NITO has approximately 45,000 members, 60% of whom work
in the private sector. NITO is leaving its present confederation, the
Confederation of Norwegian Professional Associations (Akademikernes
Fellesorganisasjon, AF) at the end of 1999, and has so far not made clear its
future confederal affiliation (NO9901111N ). It is doubtful that NITO
regards LO as an option in this regard, although the cooperation agreement
with Fellesforbundet shows an expressed willingness to strengthen its
cooperation with LO in the private sector. The two organisations have
cooperated on an informal basis for a long time.
Around 450 hospital orderlies and cleaners at three hospitals in the county
of Frederiksborg went on strike on 16 August 1999 in protest against a
proposal by the county council - headed by county mayor,Lars Lykke Rasmussen-
that all hospital orderly and cleaning work should be put out to tender by
private companies. The unofficial strike was a culmination of a long period
of dissatisfaction with statements from counties and municipalities in the
metropolitan area that they will outsource a large number of public tasks to
the private sector to achieve budget cuts. The Danish Confederation of Trade
Unions (Landsorganisationen Danmark, LO) organisation in the Copenhagen area
stated that the outsourcing plans indicated disdain for the municipal and
county employees and their performance over many years, and warned directly
that labour disputes might occur.
On 27 May 1999, negotiators for the Federation of Salaried Employees in
Industry and Services (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK) - the bargaining
cartel for white-collar workers' unions in the private sector - announced
that they could not accept a final offer from the Swedish Employers'
Confederation (Svenska arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) on a new "contribution
pension" agreement. This agreement would have replaced the existing agreement
on the supplementary pension scheme for salaried employees in industry and
services (Industrins och handelns tilläggspensionför tjänstemän,ITP). The
negotiations over a new collective agreement on the ITP had been continuing
on off for almost five years, since 1994, and they failed because the trade
unions could not come to an understanding among themselves. Two of the
leading unions within PTK, representing more than half of the 620,000
employees covered by the ITP scheme, refused to accept. The other 26 unions
within the cartel decided, after long discussions, to follow this refusal,
although they had initially accepted the offer. The dissenting unions were
the Union for Technical and Clerical Employees in Industry (Svenska
Industritjänstemannaförbundet, SIF) and the Association of Management and
Professional Staff (Ledarna).
An agreement on teleworking was concluded in June 1999 between the
state-owned Norwegian oil company Statoil and the Norwegian Oil and
Petrochemical Workers Union (Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Nopef).
Statistics presented in June 1999 and produced by Statistics Sweden
(Statistiska Centralbyrån) in cooperation with the Swedish National Board
for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), show a 9% fall in the
establishment of new companies between 1997 and 1998. In 1998, a total of
33,860 new companies were started, compared with 37,040 in 1997. For the
preceding years, the corresponding figures were: 1996 - 36,010; 1995 -
35,000; and 1994 - 34,670. The new companies created 55,200 new jobs in 1998,
of which 26,000 were full-time jobs, the statistics also show. The equivalent
figures for 1997 were 63,000 new jobs and 32,300 full-time jobs. The
reduction has been most evident in the northern counties of Sweden - 22% in
Gävleborg, 20% in Västernorrland and 16% in Västerbotten. The statistics
are based on genuine new start-ups involving the establishment of new
activities. The statistics do not include changes of ownership or of legal
status, or other restructuring.
On 20 July 1999, the government decided to finance the training of up to
4,000 young people, if they cannot find training places with employers in
1999-2000. This is the same allocation as for 1998-9 (AT9803175N ), when
3,600 young people were placed - 2,100 in 10-month training courses and 1,500
in three-year "apprenticeship-foundation" courses. Training course
participants must have a ninth-grade school-leaving diploma (the ninth grade
is around 15 years of age) and receive about half the regular apprentice's
remuneration, while foundation course participants have not usually completed
the ninth grade and receive three-quarters of the normal apprentice's
The dispute between the Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS) and its ground
staff was resolved after a meeting between management and trade union
representatives on 9 August 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. On 14 July 1999,
Norwegian ground staff who are members of the SAS Personnel Club (SAS
Personalklubb) had resorted to industrial action, and refused to work
overtime, in protest against the airline's possible plans to increase company
earnings by means of outsourcing approximately 7,000 jobs in Norway, Sweden
and Denmark (NO9907143N ). More SAS employees joined the strike on 27
A report entitled Survey evidence on wage rigidity and unemployment: Sweden
in the 1990s  was presented on 29 June 1999. The study is based on two
surveys, one conducted in 1991, the other in 1998, aiming to explore among
managers from 157 companies in the Swedish manufacturing industry how a
severe macroeconomic shock affects wage rigidity and unemployment. The
research was carried out by two economists, Jonas Agell and Peter Lundborg,
and funded by the Swedish government's Office of Labour Market Policy
Evaluation (Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, IFAU). In
1998, when the second survey was conducted, the unemployment rate was much
higher and the inflation rate much lower than when the first survey was
carried out in 1991.
Since 1998, all EU Member States are obliged to draw up annual National
Action Plans (NAP s) for employment (EU9805107N ) based on the EU's
Employment Guidelines. Member States submitted NAPs for 1999 during summer
1999, analysing implementation of the 1998 Plans and describing the policy
adjustments made to incorporate the changes introduced by the 1999 Employment
Guidelines  (EU9810130F ). Austria is no exception (AT9802164F ) and
its 1999 NAP  was issued in June 1999.
A summary of the results of research on the relationship between employment status and health. A bibliographic review was undertaken and data from the 1996 Second European Survey on Working Conditions complemented by Eurostat data was also analysed.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).