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  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In a ruling issued on 8 June 1999, the Supreme Court (Højesteret) rejected
    the argument that it should be illegal for trade unions and employers'
    organisations to conclude closed-shop agreements. Under such agreements, in
    order to be able to work at a certain workplace, an employee has to be a
    member of the trade union with which the employer has concluded the
    closed-shop agreement. The ruling came in case against the Danish Cooperative
    Society (Foreningen af Danske Brugser, FDB), brought by Denmark's Free Trade
    Union (Danmarks Frie Fagforening, DFF) on grounds of alleged violation of the
    Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
    Fundamental Freedoms by operating a closed-shop agreement. In its ruling, the
    Supreme Court clearly rejected the idea that such a violation had occurred.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In July 1999, the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
    published new figures on the development of annual incomes in the
    manufacturing sector. According to the statistics, a full-time employee in
    manufacturing earned an average of DEM 68,646 in 1998, including collectively
    agreed annual income as well as other annual bonuses (Christmas bonus,
    holiday bonus, annual profit-sharing payments etc). In comparison with the
    previous year, average income increased by about 2.6% in 1998.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    Since the UK introduced its National Minimum Wage in April 1999 (UK9904196F
    [1]), Ireland is the only EU Member State that currently has no provisions
    for either a statutory or collectively agreed national minimum wage, or a
    system of legally-binding industry-level collective agreements setting
    minimum pay rates across almost all sectors of the economy. Not for long,
    however: the current Fianna Fail/Progressive Democrat coalition government
    has committed itself to introducing a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April
    2000. A rate of IEP 4.40 per hour for full-time adult workers (and IEP 3.08
    for those aged under 18) has been proposed, following the publication of a
    report by the National Minimum Wage Commission (NMWC) in April 1998
    (IE9804246F [2]).


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
    attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
    approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
    changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
    from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
    - will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 2 July 1999, the UK's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) published
    draft Regulations [1] to implement the EU European Works Councils (s)
    Directive [2] in the UK, together with a consultation document [3] seeking
    views on the government's proposed approach. After further refinement, and
    subject to approval by parliament, the Transnational Information and
    Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 will come into force on 15
    December 1999 - the deadline set by the 1997 Directive [4] which reversed the
    previous UK government's "opt-out" from the original EWCs Directive.


  • Newsletter
    27 Červenec 1999

    Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation It is published 10 times per year and provides up-to-date news and information on the Foundation's work and research. The March issue contains the following articles: Ageing; EMU and industrial relations; Financial participation; EUCO cooperation.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 6 July 1999, leading representatives of the federal government, trade
    unions and employers' associations (see the annex at the end of this record
    for details of the participants) met officially, chaired by the Federal
    Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, for the third round of top-level talks within
    the framework of the Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness [1]
    (Bündnis für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit). The Alliance
    was established in December 1998 as a new permanent tripartite arrangement at
    national level, including various working groups on specific topics as well
    as regular top-level talks between the leading representatives of all three
    parties (DE9812286N [2]).


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 14 July 1999, the Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Bertie Ahern, launched a new
    joint training initiative from theIrish Business and Employers Confederation
    (IBEC) and the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which was developed
    with the assistance of the National Centre for Partnership (IE9706202N [1]) a
    body established under the current three-year national programme, Partnership
    2000 [2] (P2000) (IE9702103F [3]). The initiative is seen as a practical
    contribution by the social partners to the achievement of the aims of P2000
    in relation to the development of enterprise-level partnership.



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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