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  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 6 July 1999, leading representatives of the federal government, trade
    unions and employers' associations (see the annex at the end of this record
    for details of the participants) met officially, chaired by the Federal
    Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, for the third round of top-level talks within
    the framework of the Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness [1]
    (Bündnis für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit). The Alliance
    was established in December 1998 as a new permanent tripartite arrangement at
    national level, including various working groups on specific topics as well
    as regular top-level talks between the leading representatives of all three
    parties (DE9812286N [2]).


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    On 14 July 1999, the Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Bertie Ahern, launched a new
    joint training initiative from theIrish Business and Employers Confederation
    (IBEC) and the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which was developed
    with the assistance of the National Centre for Partnership (IE9706202N [1]) a
    body established under the current three-year national programme, Partnership
    2000 [2] (P2000) (IE9702103F [3]). The initiative is seen as a practical
    contribution by the social partners to the achievement of the aims of P2000
    in relation to the development of enterprise-level partnership.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The issue of the rehabilitation of workers who have become incapacitated has
    been the subject of a number of special commissions in recent years, and on 3
    June 1999 another commissioner - Gerhard Larsson, the former head of Samhall,
    a governmental rehabilitation organisation - was asked to study and analyse
    the situation. Since 1992, the main responsibility for the rehabilitation of
    employees has been placed on employers, and several changes have been made to
    the regulations since then. For example, the rules on the costs of
    rehabilitation and sick leave have been altered, as has the system for
    cooperation between employers and the local social insurance office and other
    authorities. In August 1998, a government committee proposed a clarification
    of employers' responsibilities (SE9810114F [1]).


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    In two rulings issued on 30 June 1999, the Norwegian Supreme Court endorsed
    the right of employees in some cases to avoid being transferred to a new
    employer, when the enterprise is transferring support functions to another
    employer (outsourcing). Both cases related to the outsourcing of defined task
    areas with few employees, one concerning a switchboard operator and the other
    three cleaners. The employees who brought the cases wanted to retain their
    employment with the original employer. They claimed that employees have a
    legal right to choose whether to work for the new employer or maintain
    employment with the original employer.

  • CAR
    27 Červenec 1999

    /It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
    within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
    aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
    of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
    Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
    dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
    explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
    collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
    examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
    focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
    partners are summarised./

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    The ICTU's two-yearly conference held in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999 reflected
    the widespread positive mood in Ireland due to the country's enormous
    economic growth of recent years. It is clear, however, that major challenges
    lie ahead for the trade unions, not least regarding the negotiation of an
    agreement to replace Partnership 2000 [1] (P2000) (IE9702103F [2]), the
    current national programme which runs from January 1997 to March 2000.


  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    Should people who run their own businesses be allowed to become a trade union
    member? The Swedish Union for Technical and Clerical Employees (Svenska
    Industritjänstemannaförbundet, SIF) answered yes to this question when, in
    1996 its congress decided, after a very lively debate, to allow union
    membership for the self-employed. Opponents saw the decision as a breach of
    the fundamental trade union principle of looking after workers' interests in
    relation to their employer. They also pointed out the risks of internal
    conflicts - situations where employees in a company might be competing with
    external self-employed people for the same job.

  • Article
    27 Červenec 1999

    Norwegian ground staff employed by Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have
    resorted to industrial action against the airline's plans to improve company
    earnings by means of outsourcing approximately 7,000 employees in Norway,
    Sweden and Denmark. Since 14 July 1999, members of the "SAS Personnel Club"
    (SAS Personalklubb) have refused to work extra overtime, which is a legal
    option under the Norwegian Working Environment Act.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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