Under the terms of a Royal Decree dated 1 June 1999, the Belgian government
has agreed to make payments backdated to 1 January 1999 to cross-border
workers in compensation for inequalities in their remuneration compared with
other employees. The Decree will be in force initially for three years. Such
compensation payments have already been in existence since 1994 for Belgian
workers employed in the Netherlands, but the system is now being improved.
Wage ceilings have been increased, cross-border workers who started work
after 1993 are now included and part-timers covered on a pro rata basis. For
Belgians working in France, no system had been in operation, and inequalities
have developed gradually over time as a result of the same unfavourable
combination of social contributions and high taxes.
On 5-6 February 1999, the Mining, Chemical and Energy Union (IG Bergbau
Chemie Energie, IG BCE) held a conference in Hanover, bringing together
around 270 local union members in order to evaluate recent developments in
German collective bargaining. The contributions to the conference, which were
subsequently published by the union, give a broad overview of the experiences
in IG BCE-related sectors (/Allgemeine Arbeitsbedingungen - tarifliche
Bindung oder betriebliche Gestaltung. Protokoll der Fachtagung in Hannover am
5/6 Februar 1999/, IG BCE (ed)).
Temporary employment is increasing significantly in Greece, and now
constitutes the basic form of employment for many workers, according to data
published in June 1999 by the Institute of Labour of the Greek General
Confederation of Labour (INE/GSEE).
In May 1999, the immigrants' department of Luxembourg's OGB-L trade union
confederation has called for the regularisation of the position of foreign
workers in an irregular situation, and for the introduction of a 40-hour
working week in the hotels, catering and cafés sector.
A suggestion from the Social Democrats, the largest party in the coalition
government, on obligatory supplementary training funds has created
dissatisfaction among employers and trade unions. The Social Democrats'
proposal , issued in June 1999, takes as its point of departure the fact
that the government has done a great deal to improve education for children
and young people, and now wishes to make basic reforms in connection with
adult education and supplementary training courses.
In March 1999, the National Skills Institute was set up in Spain, as part of
the process of fostering social dialogue on vocational training, to provide
technical support for the tripartite General Vocational Training Council. Its
purpose is to achieve the goals laid down in the National Vocational Training
Programme, such as monitoring, developing, accrediting and integrating
In June 1999, Finland's SAK trade union confederation outlined the trade
union movement's shared objective of strengthening the principle of the
general validity of collective agreements - their applicability to all
employers and employees in a sector, and not just members of the signatory
organisations - in the next incomes policy round. This can be interpreted
especially as a signal to the Federation of Finnish Enterprises, which wishes
to become a negotiating party in the incomes policy talks, despite its
previous aim of abolishing general validity. SAK's demand is creating some
tension between left- and right-wing parties within the "rainbow" coalition
The German tyre producer and automobile supplier Continental AG, which has
production plants in more than 15 countries and a worldwide workforce of
about 62,300 employees, is currently the target of a global trade union
campaign  organised by the International Federation of Chemical, Energy,
Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM), which accuses the company of
contravening ILO standards and the OECD guidelines for multinational
companies. ICEM is supporting its affiliate, the United Steelworkers of
America  (USWA) trade union, whose members have been on strike since
September 1998 at the US subsidiary Continental General Tire's plant in
Charlotte (North Carolina).
Figures  made public by Statistics Norway in May 1999 indicate that
286,000 working days were lost in labour disputes during 1998. A total of 36
disputes were registered in 1998, which involved approximately 27,000
employees. The figures for both working days lost and the number of disputes
are relatively high in a Norwegian context (NO9801147N ). However, the
number of working days lost due to industrial action was higher in 1992 and
in 1996. The figures cover only industrial disputes which lasted for more
than one working day. Thus, the political strike against the government's
proposal to cut one day of holiday entitlement was not taken into account in
the statistics on the number of working days lost (NO9810192N ).
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Research into the transformative potential of the digital revolution tends to take a quantitative approach in an attempt to monitor changes in employment levels due to digitalisation. The fear of potential job losses and negative disruption brought about by digital technologies has permeated the policy debate on digitalisation. In contrast, this report, based on case study research, takes a more qualitative approach to exploring the impact of selected digital technologies (internet of things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality) in the workplace.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This study presents policy-relevant findings on differential pay rates for men and women at occupational level. Previous research has underlined that the gender pay gap is biggest – and has been slowest to narrow – in well-paid jobs requiring professional qualifications. These are also jobs in which the female worker share is increasing relatively fast. The report maps the extent of the gender pay gap across the job-wage distribution, taking into account the shifting gender composition of specific sectors, occupations and jobs.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically reshaped workplace practices and work organisation across the EU. This report explores changes that occurred as a result of or during the COVID-19 pandemic in areas such as technological transformation, decision-making and remote working. The research sets out to learn from company experiences and measures that have proved critical to keeping businesses running. It aims to inform policymakers, employers and trade unions on how to make businesses, workplaces and workers more resilient in the face of a crisis such as COVID-19.