Several years ago, the Danish government suggested a target of creating
40,000 "flexi-jobs" - subsidised jobs on special terms for people with a
disability, illness or reduced ability to work - before 2005 (DK9704108N
). In mid-1999, it appears that a total of 36,500 people are presently
employed in this way. Figures from the Central Statistical Office (Danmarks
Statistik) that 20,406 people receive disability pensions in addition to
being wage earners employed on special terms of some kind, while private
sector employers employ more than 16,000 people in special sheltered jobs
which are not publicly subsidised. In addition, the number of jobs with
special flexible working hours has doubled in the course of a year.
On 5-6 February 1999, the Mining, Chemical and Energy Union (IG Bergbau
Chemie Energie, IG BCE) held a conference in Hanover, bringing together
around 270 local union members in order to evaluate recent developments in
German collective bargaining. The contributions to the conference, which were
subsequently published by the union, give a broad overview of the experiences
in IG BCE-related sectors (/Allgemeine Arbeitsbedingungen - tarifliche
Bindung oder betriebliche Gestaltung. Protokoll der Fachtagung in Hannover am
5/6 Februar 1999/, IG BCE (ed)).
Temporary employment is increasing significantly in Greece, and now
constitutes the basic form of employment for many workers, according to data
published in June 1999 by the Institute of Labour of the Greek General
Confederation of Labour (INE/GSEE).
In May 1999, the immigrants' department of Luxembourg's OGB-L trade union
confederation has called for the regularisation of the position of foreign
workers in an irregular situation, and for the introduction of a 40-hour
working week in the hotels, catering and cafés sector.
In March 1999, the National Skills Institute was set up in Spain, as part of
the process of fostering social dialogue on vocational training, to provide
technical support for the tripartite General Vocational Training Council. Its
purpose is to achieve the goals laid down in the National Vocational Training
Programme, such as monitoring, developing, accrediting and integrating
In June 1999, Finland's SAK trade union confederation outlined the trade
union movement's shared objective of strengthening the principle of the
general validity of collective agreements - their applicability to all
employers and employees in a sector, and not just members of the signatory
organisations - in the next incomes policy round. This can be interpreted
especially as a signal to the Federation of Finnish Enterprises, which wishes
to become a negotiating party in the incomes policy talks, despite its
previous aim of abolishing general validity. SAK's demand is creating some
tension between left- and right-wing parties within the "rainbow" coalition
A suggestion from the Social Democrats, the largest party in the coalition
government, on obligatory supplementary training funds has created
dissatisfaction among employers and trade unions. The Social Democrats'
proposal , issued in June 1999, takes as its point of departure the fact
that the government has done a great deal to improve education for children
and young people, and now wishes to make basic reforms in connection with
adult education and supplementary training courses.
The German tyre producer and automobile supplier Continental AG, which has
production plants in more than 15 countries and a worldwide workforce of
about 62,300 employees, is currently the target of a global trade union
campaign  organised by the International Federation of Chemical, Energy,
Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM), which accuses the company of
contravening ILO standards and the OECD guidelines for multinational
companies. ICEM is supporting its affiliate, the United Steelworkers of
America  (USWA) trade union, whose members have been on strike since
September 1998 at the US subsidiary Continental General Tire's plant in
Charlotte (North Carolina).
Figures  made public by Statistics Norway in May 1999 indicate that
286,000 working days were lost in labour disputes during 1998. A total of 36
disputes were registered in 1998, which involved approximately 27,000
employees. The figures for both working days lost and the number of disputes
are relatively high in a Norwegian context (NO9801147N ). However, the
number of working days lost due to industrial action was higher in 1992 and
in 1996. The figures cover only industrial disputes which lasted for more
than one working day. Thus, the political strike against the government's
proposal to cut one day of holiday entitlement was not taken into account in
the statistics on the number of working days lost (NO9810192N ).
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on care use and reliance on other support. The report analyses policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States that have proven particularly important for the quality of life of older citizens, for example, measures to support independent living.
Following improvements in economic growth and labour market participation after the global financial and economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a new, unprecedented challenge for the EU. The crisis threatens to pose an existential challenge to the EU’s cohesion and legitimacy. The subject of upward convergence is once again centre stage in the European policy debate. Expanding on work done on this topic in previous years, this flagship report traces developments in economic and social indicators between the economic crisis and the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This report examines the phenomenon of overtime in the EU, providing a comparative description of how it is regulated in EU Member States. It also assesses how contentious the issue can be and investigates the reasons behind the various disputes and debates. Finally, the report attempts to quantify and characterise the share of overtime for which workers are not paid or compensated. The analysis is based on information collected in EU Member States by the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.