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  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    Temporary employment is increasing significantly in Greece, and now
    constitutes the basic form of employment for many workers, according to data
    published in June 1999 by the Institute of Labour of the Greek General
    Confederation of Labour (INE/GSEE).

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    In May 1999, the immigrants' department of Luxembourg's OGB-L trade union
    confederation has called for the regularisation of the position of foreign
    workers in an irregular situation, and for the introduction of a 40-hour
    working week in the hotels, catering and cafés sector.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    A suggestion from the Social Democrats, the largest party in the coalition
    government, on obligatory supplementary training funds has created
    dissatisfaction among employers and trade unions. The Social Democrats'
    proposal [1], issued in June 1999, takes as its point of departure the fact
    that the government has done a great deal to improve education for children
    and young people, and now wishes to make basic reforms in connection with
    adult education and supplementary training courses.


  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    In March 1999, the National Skills Institute was set up in Spain, as part of
    the process of fostering social dialogue on vocational training, to provide
    technical support for the tripartite General Vocational Training Council. Its
    purpose is to achieve the goals laid down in the National Vocational Training
    Programme, such as monitoring, developing, accrediting and integrating

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    In June 1999, Finland's SAK trade union confederation outlined the trade
    union movement's shared objective of strengthening the principle of the
    general validity of collective agreements - their applicability to all
    employers and employees in a sector, and not just members of the signatory
    organisations - in the next incomes policy round. This can be interpreted
    especially as a signal to the Federation of Finnish Enterprises, which wishes
    to become a negotiating party in the incomes policy talks, despite its
    previous aim of abolishing general validity. SAK's demand is creating some
    tension between left- and right-wing parties within the "rainbow" coalition

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    The German tyre producer and automobile supplier Continental AG, which has
    production plants in more than 15 countries and a worldwide workforce of
    about 62,300 employees, is currently the target of a global trade union
    campaign [1] organised by the International Federation of Chemical, Energy,
    Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM), which accuses the company of
    contravening ILO standards and the OECD guidelines for multinational
    companies. ICEM is supporting its affiliate, the United Steelworkers of
    America [2] (USWA) trade union, whose members have been on strike since
    September 1998 at the US subsidiary Continental General Tire's plant in
    Charlotte (North Carolina).


  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    On 29 April 1998, three butchers employed at Skanek, a major Swedish butchery
    company, were dismissed. Management at the local factory in Kristianstad, in
    the south of Sweden, stated that the reason for the dismissals was the
    unlawful industrial action that had occurred at the factory that morning,
    which led to a two-hour cessation of production. Most of the workers on the
    slaughter line had refused to wear metallic protective aprons, which were
    issued to every worker working on the line. Three butchers were selected for
    dismissal, the employer assuming that they were the leaders of the "wildcat"
    strike. The employer argued that the industrial action must have had
    instigators, and that circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that the
    three butchers, who were trade union representatives, had taken the
    initiative to strike.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    Figures [1] made public by Statistics Norway in May 1999 indicate that
    286,000 working days were lost in labour disputes during 1998. A total of 36
    disputes were registered in 1998, which involved approximately 27,000
    employees. The figures for both working days lost and the number of disputes
    are relatively high in a Norwegian context (NO9801147N [2]). However, the
    number of working days lost due to industrial action was higher in 1992 and
    in 1996. The figures cover only industrial disputes which lasted for more
    than one working day. Thus, the political strike against the government's
    proposal to cut one day of holiday entitlement was not taken into account in
    the statistics on the number of working days lost (NO9810192N [3]).


  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    At a round-table meeting held on 11 May 1999 at the Ministry for Employment
    and Solidarity, the government and social partners launched a new stage in
    the fight against racial discrimination at the workplace in France. This
    initial meeting concluded with the unanimous endorsement of a joint
    declaration on racial discrimination tabled by the Minister for Employment
    and Solidarity, Martine Aubry. The Minister also proposed amendments to
    legislation, designed to make it easier to bring cases in the courts in the
    event of discrimination. The social partners made a commitment to work
    together to address all types of discrimination, though they unanimously
    rejected the creation of a new independent administrative authority in this


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications