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  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    On 29 April 1998, three butchers employed at Skanek, a major Swedish butchery
    company, were dismissed. Management at the local factory in Kristianstad, in
    the south of Sweden, stated that the reason for the dismissals was the
    unlawful industrial action that had occurred at the factory that morning,
    which led to a two-hour cessation of production. Most of the workers on the
    slaughter line had refused to wear metallic protective aprons, which were
    issued to every worker working on the line. Three butchers were selected for
    dismissal, the employer assuming that they were the leaders of the "wildcat"
    strike. The employer argued that the industrial action must have had
    instigators, and that circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that the
    three butchers, who were trade union representatives, had taken the
    initiative to strike.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    Over the summer of 1999, the Spanish Ministry of Labour has criticised the
    pre-retirement schemes of many companies on grounds of their cost to the
    country's social security system. Though many of the companies involved are
    the largest and most profitable ones, they are increasingly using early and
    pre-retirement as part of their labour strategy. The government is therefore
    now seeking ways of toughening the conditions for eligibility.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    Finland's National Programme for Older Workers, which is being carried out in
    cooperation between various ministries and the social partners, aims to
    disseminate best practice in the management of an ageing workforce. In June
    1999, the programme published a report on the case of ABB Control, a company
    which has implemented a development project, preceded by a phase focusing on
    the health and ability to work of the staff, and development of the
    "workplace community". The parties involved have reportedly been satisfied
    with the progress achieved and the commitment has been strong.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    At a round-table meeting held on 11 May 1999 at the Ministry for Employment
    and Solidarity, the government and social partners launched a new stage in
    the fight against racial discrimination at the workplace in France. This
    initial meeting concluded with the unanimous endorsement of a joint
    declaration on racial discrimination tabled by the Minister for Employment
    and Solidarity, Martine Aubry. The Minister also proposed amendments to
    legislation, designed to make it easier to bring cases in the courts in the
    event of discrimination. The social partners made a commitment to work
    together to address all types of discrimination, though they unanimously
    rejected the creation of a new independent administrative authority in this

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    On 1 June 1999, the Mining, Chemicals and Energy Union (Industriegewerkschaft
    Bergbau,Chemie, Energie, IG BCE) and the German Federation of Chemicals
    Employers' Associations (Bundesarbeitgeberverband Chemie, BAVC) signed a
    pilot agreement for the collective bargaining district of Nordrhein. The new
    agreement provides employees with a flat-rate payment of DEM 200 in respect
    of May 1999 and a 3% increase in remuneration from June 1999. Vocational
    trainees will receive no proportional wage increase, but a flat-rate payment
    of DEM 200. The agreement runs for 13 months.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    The Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union (SIPTU), Ireland's
    largest trade union with some 200,000 members, has recorded 1,122 pay
    settlements from the commencement of the current Partnership 2000 [1] (P2000)
    three-year national agreement (IE9702103F [2]) in January 1997 up to
    mid-April 1999. The agreements cover 135,458 employees in either the private
    sector or in commercial semi-state companies (these companies - such as Aer
    Lingus, ESB and Telecom Eireann- are formally part of the P2000 private
    sector pay deal). An analysis of the agreements, published on 13 May 1999 by
    the independent weekly, /Industrial Relations News/ (IRN) indicates that the
    degree of wage drift in Ireland's booming economy remains relatively modest
    and that most unionised private sector and commercial semi-state companies
    are maintaining pay increases in line with the level agreed in P2000
    (IE9905278N [3]).


  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    On 8 June 1999 the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget) approved a proposal from
    the Ministry of Children and Family Affairs to alter the Opening Hours Act
    (åpningstidsloven). The Act, which came into effect on 1 January 1999, has
    been subject to much controversy since its adoption in June 1998. The changes
    have been introduced in an effort to prevent the apparently ambiguous
    interpretations by some commercial enterprises of the Act's clauses allowing

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    On 14 June 1999, the Swedish Association of Graduates in Law, Business
    Administration and Economics, Computer and Systems Science, Personnel
    Management and Social Sciences (Jusek) presented the results of its latest
    labour market investigation. It found that female lawyers, personnel managers
    and information technology technicians earn a lower starting salary in their
    profession than their male colleagues. The phenomenon tends to follow women
    with an academic education when their salaries are reviewed.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    In summer 1999, Spain's UGT trade union confederation proposed compensating
    workers on the termination of temporary contracts, in order to curb excessive
    use of these contracts by employers. Whilst there has been a recent increase
    in the absolute number of permanent employment contracts signed, by April
    1999 they still represented only 9.6% of the total number of new contracts.

  • Article
    27 Červen 1999

    Decree-Law 119/99 of 14 April 1999, which came into effect on 1 July,
    outlines a new legal framework for unemployment benefits under the general
    social security regime. It applies to all non self-employed workers.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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