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  • Article
    27 marts 1997

    The Institute of Management's recent survey of their male and female members
    (A question of balance? A survey of managers' changing professional and
    personal values", K Charlesworth, Institute of Management, London, (1997))
    reports 52% of men as saying that their style is participative (compared with
    60% of women respondents) with the same proportion of men and women (30%)
    claiming to have a consensual approach. Their employing organisations seem to
    have taken less notice of the Institute: only 15% of respondents described
    their company culture as participative.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The executive committee (sekretariatet) of the Norwegian Confederation of
    Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or LO), the largest union
    confederation in Norway, has recommended a programme of action containing a
    set of policy principles for the period 1997-2001. The programme encompasses
    a wide variety of social and economic issues and is to be adopted at the
    confederation's congress on 10-16 May 1997 after a plenary debate.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    Compared to many other western industrialised countries, Germany has the
    image of being a high-wage economy with a relatively low inequality of
    incomes and living standards. This is mainly the result of the German system
    of branch-level central collective bargaining (Flächentarifvertrag), where
    almost all employees in any sector receive the same basic payment.
    Nevertheless, it is not widely known that there is still a large number of
    sectors and areas of employment where collectively-agreed basic wages and
    salaries are relatively low. This is the main finding of a recent study by
    the Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut,WSI) on low wages in Germany
    ("Niedriglöhne. Die unbekannte Realität: Armut trotz Arbeit", Gerd Pohl &
    Claus Schäfer (eds), VSA-Verlag Hamburg (1996)). The study was inspired by
    the European Commission which, in 1993, adopted an Opinion on an equitable
    wage, the main purpose of which was "to outline certain basic principles on
    equitable wages, while taking into account social and economic realities".

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The Ford Motor Company announced on 16 January 1997 that it was to cut 1,300
    jobs at its Halewood plant on Merseyside (in the north-west of England) This
    was after five days of speculation following a report in the /Observer/
    newspaper that Ford wanted to install new efficient working practices, and
    that it would threaten to build its new -generation Escort model elsewhere,
    or close the plant altogether if trade unions did not agree to concessions.
    It was confirmed on 16 January that production of the new-model Escort would
    not include Halewood but instead be located at Saarlouis (Germany) and
    Valencia (Spain), and furthermore that Halewood would also immediately reduce
    its shift pattern to one shift per day. Because production of the old-model
    Escort is due to be phased out by 2000, there appears to be a real threat of
    the plant closing down altogether

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    Figures from the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (
    Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon or NHO) show that over 530,000 working days
    were lost in industrial conflict during the 1996 wage negotiations. These
    figures cover only private sector companies which are members of NHO, but
    nearly all industrial conflicts in 1996 took place within this area. This is
    the highest number of working days lost since 1986, when Norway experienced a
    major lockout in the private sector. In 1996, lawful strikes accounted for
    all the lost working days, and the number of working days lost in strikes
    alone (ie, excluding lock-outs) is thus the highest since the 1930s. The
    major strikes all came in the private sector and among unions affiliated to
    the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or
    LO). The Government did not, as often before, intervene to stop strikes with
    compulsory arbitration. Three strikes accounted for the majority of lost
    working days. These came in the metal industry, the hotel and restaurant
    industry and in the electrical installation industry.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The agreement was concluded on 11 February 1997 and sets out the ways in
    which the financial recovery, growth and modernisation of the Italian rail
    system will be brought about in line with the guidelines of the 1991
    Directive on the development of Community railways (440/91/EEC). The deal was
    signed by the Ministry of Transport, the state railways board (FS), and the
    following railway trade union organisations: CGIL (the General Confederation
    of Italian Workers); CISL (the Italian Confederation of Workers' Unions); UIL
    (the Union of Italian Workers); the three confederations' respective sectoral
    organisations - Filt-Cgil, Fit-Cisl and Uilt-Uil; and three non-confederal
    organisations - Fisafs-Cisal (the autonomous rail trade union), Comu
    (theUnited Train Drivers' Committee) and Sma ( the Train Drivers' Trade
    Union).

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) has recently published its annual
    examination of the previous collective bargaining round. It paints a rather
    mixed picture of 1996, a year in which collective bargaining was overshadowed
    by continuing relatively poor economic performance and a further increase in
    unemployment. GDP grew by only 1.4% over the year, while at the end of the
    year more than 4 million people were officially registered as unemployed.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    Some Portuguese sectors have been characterised by a widespread move away
    from standard, regular and permanent jobs towards temporary forms of
    employment, including irregular and casual work, homeworking and certain
    forms of self-employment. These developments are the result of an interplay
    between macroeconomic conditions, company strategy and labour legislation.
    However, pressure is mounting amongst the social partners to counter further
    fragmentation of standard employment statuses.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications

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