Working conditions and sustainable work

Arbejdsvilkår og bæredygtigt arbejde: En analyse baseret på jobkvalitetsmodellen

Flagship report
Udgivet
26 februar 2021
pdf
Formats and languages
Executive summary in 22 languages
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Væsentlige konklusioner

  • Gennemsnitligt har arbejdstagerne i EU bedre arbejdsvilkår i dag end ved dette århundreds begyndelse. Arbejdstidskvaliteten er blevet klart forbedret, og det fysiske arbejdsmiljø er også bedre, navnlig de steder, hvor det har størst betydning: i fag med høj eksponering for fysiske risici.
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  • Gennemsnitligt har arbejdstagerne i EU bedre arbejdsvilkår i dag end ved dette århundreds begyndelse. Arbejdstidskvaliteten er blevet klart forbedret, og det fysiske arbejdsmiljø er også bedre, navnlig de steder, hvor det har størst betydning: i fag med høj eksponering for fysiske risici.
  • I dag kræver job flere kompetencer og byder på mere autonomi end tidligere. Det afspejles i en forbedring af indekset for kompetencer og selvbestemmelse.
  • Udviklingen i arbejdstageres kompetencer hæmmes af ulige adgang til og udbredelse af arbejdsgiverbetalt uddannelse. Ældre arbejdstagere deltager i mindre grad i uddannelse, og adgangen til uddannelse er i stigende grad forskellig for arbejdstagere med forskellige ansættelsesforhold (fuldtids- kontra deltidsansættelse samt fast kontra tidsbegrænset ansættelse).
  • Vedvarende kønssegregering på arbejdsmarkedet er afspejlet i forskelle i jobkvalitet for mænd og kvinder. Men der er ingen samlet vinder. Kønsbestemte forskelle kan også ramme mænd, for eksempel når det gælder det fysiske arbejdsmiljø.
  • Karrieremuligheder er generelt forbedret for mænd og kvinder, men mændene har stadig forspringet, når det gælder denne dimension af jobkvaliteten. Mænd og kvinders ulige varetagelse af omsorgsforpligtelser, udtrykt i længere orlover og individuelle arbejdstidsaftaler for kvinders vedkommende, er den sandsynlige årsag.
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Resumé

Denne flagskibsrapport sammenfatter de væsentlige konklusioner i Eurofounds undersøgelse af arbejdsvilkår, som er udført i programmeringsperioden 2017-2020. Den kortlægger den fremgang, der er opnået siden 2000 med hensyn til forbedring af arbejdsvilkårene, og undersøger, om de positive forandrinRead more

Denne flagskibsrapport sammenfatter de væsentlige konklusioner i Eurofounds undersøgelse af arbejdsvilkår, som er udført i programmeringsperioden 2017-2020. Den kortlægger den fremgang, der er opnået siden 2000 med hensyn til forbedring af arbejdsvilkårene, og undersøger, om de positive forandringer er kommet alle arbejdstagere til gode. Den sætter fokus på de grupper, der har størst risiko for at opleve dårlige arbejdsvilkår og blive hægtet af. På baggrund af ændringerne på arbejdsmarkedet identificeres nye udfordringer for god jobkvalitet. Rapporten fremlægger også dokumentation for foranstaltninger, der kan føre til, at jobkvaliteten forbedres yderligere, og at der opnås retfærdige arbejdsvilkår for alle i EU.

Analysen viser, at jobkvaliteten i EU generelt forbedres, men at det går langsomt. Det er dog forskelligt, i hvilken grad forbedringen kommer arbejdstagerne til gode. Endvidere har køn, alder og ansættelsesforhold stor betydning for en persons arbejdsvilkår. Og selv om digitaliseringen er med til at afhjælpe visse problemer med jobkvaliteten, skaber den også nye udfordringer. Covid-19-pandemien har forværret udviklingen, hvilket forstærker bekymringen og fremhæver vigtigheden af at opnå jobkvalitet for alle.

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Formats and languages

  • Rapport

    Antal sider: 
    80
    Referencenr.: 
    EF20021
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2150-9
    Katalognr.: 
    TJ-03-21-030-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/938302
    Catalogue info

    Arbejdsvilkår og bæredygtigt arbejde: En analyse baseret på jobkvalitetsmodellen

    Formater

    Citér denne publikation: 

    Eurofound (2021), Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework, Challenges and prospects in the EU series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 

  • Executive summary

    Referencenr.: 
    EF20021EN1
    Catalogue info

    Arbejdsvilkår og bæredygtigt arbejde: En analyse baseret på jobkvalitetsmodellen

    Forfatter(e): 
    Eurofound

    Kan downloades på 22 sprog

    Hent
  • Case studies and working paper

  • Tables and graphs

    List of tables

    The report has the following list of tables:

    Table 1: Change in the composition of the workforce, EU27 and the UK, 2002–2019

    Table 2: Elements of the job demands–resources model based on the EWCS

    List of figures

    The report has the following list of figures:

    Figure 1: The seven dimensions of job quality and the indicators composing each dimension

    Figure 2: Indexed change in job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 3: Physical environment index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 4: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by sector, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 5: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 6: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 7: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 8: Participation in paid training (%), by employment and contractual status, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 9: Associations between working time quality and occupational category, by country cluster

    Figure 10: Working time quality index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 11: Long working hours (%), by employment status, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 12: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 13: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 14: Scores on Prospects index, by employment and sociodemographic characteristics, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 15: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 16: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), by age group, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 17: Exposure to adverse social behaviour (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 18: Perception of fair pay (%), by Member State and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 19: Perceived appropriateness of pay, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 20: Job quality profiles: Scores on seven job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 21: Distribution of workers according to job quality profiles, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 22: Job quality profiles of men, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 23: Job quality profiles of women, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 24: Distribution of employees according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 25: Gender of immediate manager (%), by worker’s gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 26: Female employees reporting good prospects for career advancement and gender gap (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 27: Good prospects for career advancement (%), by age and gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 28: Job insecurity according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 29: Employability according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 30: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to occupation type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 31: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to household type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 32: Employee experience of selected emotional demands (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 33: Average weekly working hours of employees across the life course, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 34: Flexibility to take time off according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 35: Additional components of earnings from main job (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 36: Employees’ perception of their work–life balance (%), by age, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 37: Employees’ participation in training (%), by age and training classification, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 38: Associations between demands and resources and workers’ health and well-being

    Figure 39: Proportion of workers with flexitime schedules and engaged in TICTM (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 40: Workers reporting work–life balance problems (%), by work arrangement and presence or absence of children, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 41: Multiple-job holders as a proportion of total employment (%), by gender and country, EU27 and the UK, 2018

    Figure 42: Job quality profiles of multiple-job holders’ main jobs, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 43: Job quality of selected critical occupations in relation to the workforce average

    Figure 44: Emotional demands on ISWs and extent of those demands (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

  • Videos

    Members of Eurofound’s Management Board provide their reactions to and insights into Eurofound’s 2021 flagship report on Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework.

    • Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic
      Interview with Juha Antila, Head of Research and Development SAK, Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions.

    • Digitalisation
      Interview with Mario van Mierlo, Deputy Director, Social Affairs, The Dutch Confederation of Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW).

    • Making work sustainable
      Interview with Alain Piette, Ergonomist at the Belgian Federal Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue.

    • Role of different actors in improving job quality
      Interview with Rebekah Smith, Deputy Director for Social Affairs, BusinessEurope.

    • Persisting challenges
      Interview with Nelson Ferreira, Deputy General Inspector ACT, Portugal Labour Conditions Authority.

    • Remote working
      Interview with Esther Lynch, Deputy General Secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

This report presents the results of research conducted largely prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe in February 2020. For this reason, the results do not fully take account of the outbreak.

Forskning udført forud for Det Forenede Kongeriges udtræden af Den Europæiske Union den 31. januar 2020 og offentliggjort efterfølgende kan omfatte data vedrørende de 28 EU-medlemsstater. Efter denne dato tager forskningen kun højde for de 27 EU-medlemsstater (EU-28 minus Det Forenede Kongerige), medmindre andet anføres.

Part of the series

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

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