Industrial relations

Mindstelønninger i 2020: Årlig gennemgang

Report
Opdateret
13 november 2020
Udgivet
4 juni 2020
pdf
Formater
Executive summary
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Væsentlige konklusioner

  • I 2019 var der mange lande, der drøftede en yderligere væsentlig stigning i mindstelønnen efter 2020, delvist i forhold til et relativt mål, delvis i absolutte tal.
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  • I 2019 var der mange lande, der drøftede en yderligere væsentlig stigning i mindstelønnen efter 2020, delvist i forhold til et relativt mål, delvis i absolutte tal.
  • De lovbestemte mindstelønninger er blevet mere retfærdige i forhold til andre arbejdstageres lønninger siden begyndelsen af dette årtusind (når man sammenligner de lovbestemte mindstelønninger med medianlønnen for alle arbejdstagere).
  • På trods af denne opadgående tendens ligger mindstelønnen i de fleste lande fortsat under 60 % eller endda under 50 % af medianlønnen. Dette gælder især i de central- og østeuropæiske medlemsstater, som startede på et meget lavt niveau i begyndelsen af årtusindet, og som fortsat har mål på omkring eller under 50 % i deres mindstelønslovgivning.
  • Samlet set oplyser 7 ud af 10 arbejdstagere på mindsteløn, at det til en vis grad er vanskeligt at få enderne til at nå sammen, sammenlignet med mindre end 5 ud af 10 andre arbejdstagere. Disse tal varierer dog betydeligt på tværs af landene. F.eks. finder under 10 % af arbejdstagerne på mindsteløn i Danmark, Finland, Tyskland og Sverige det vanskeligt til meget vanskeligt sammenlignet med 50 % til 60 % i Bulgarien, Kroatien og Cypern, og 80 % i Grækenland.
  • Regeringerne i hele Europa reagerer med indkomststabiliseringsforanstaltninger for dem, der er berørt af covid-19-krisen. Mindstelønninger kan spille en rolle i policy-mixet til stabilisering af indkomsterne og følgelig efterspørgslen og dermed modvirke en nedadgående spiral mod økonomisk tilbagegang eller økonomisk krise.
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Resumé

Denne rapport, der er en del af en årlig serie om mindstelønninger, sammenfatter den vigtigste udvikling i løbet af 2019 og begyndelsen af 2020 i forhold til EU-initiativet om rimelige lønninger og inddrager de nationale debatter om fastsættelsen af niveauerne for 2020 og derefter i denne sammenhRead more

Denne rapport, der er en del af en årlig serie om mindstelønninger, sammenfatter den vigtigste udvikling i løbet af 2019 og begyndelsen af 2020 i forhold til EU-initiativet om rimelige lønninger og inddrager de nationale debatter om fastsættelsen af niveauerne for 2020 og derefter i denne sammenhæng. Rapporten beskriver, hvordan mindstelønningerne blev fastsat, og arbejdsmarkedsparternes rolle. Den drøfter udviklingen inden for de lovbestemte mindstelønninger og fremlægger data om mindstelønsniveauer i kollektive overenskomster vedrørende 10 lavtlønnede job for lande uden lovbestemte mindstelønninger. Rapporten indeholder også et afsnit om den regionale dimension af mindstelønninger og præsenterer den seneste forskning i virkningerne af mindstelønsændringer for løn, beskæftigelse, fattigdom blandt personer i arbejde, priser og fortjeneste.

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Formater

  • Rapport

    Last updated date: 
    23 jun 2020
    Antal sider: 
    86
    Referencenr.: 
    EF20005
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2068-7
    Katalognr.: 
    TJ-AS-20-001-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/999852
    Catalogue info

    Mindstelønninger i 2020: Årlig gennemgang

    This report, as part of an annual series on minimum wages, summarises the key developments during 2019 and early 2020 around the EU initiative on fair wages and puts the national debates on setting the rates for 2020 and beyond in this context. The report features how minimum wages were set and the role of social partners. It discusses developments in statutory minimum wages and presents data on minimum wage rates in collective agreements related to 10 low-paid jobs for countries without statutory minimum wages.

    Formater

    Citér denne publikation: 

    Eurofound (2020), Minimum wages in 2020: Annual review, Minimum wages in the EU series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Executive summary

    Number of pages: 
    6
    Referencenr.: 
    EF20005EN1
    Catalogue info

    Minimum wages in 2020: Annual review

    Forfatter(e): 
    Eurofound

    During the year 2019 many countries were debating a further substantial increase to minimum wages beyond 2020, partially in relation to a relative target, partially in absolute terms. Some governments — such as Poland, Slovakia and Spain — have announced or are considering plans to elevate the statutory minimum wages to 60% of median or average wages. The United Kingdom reached this aim and intends to move beyond. Statutory minimum wages have become fairer as compared to other workers’ wages since the beginning of the millennium (when comparing statutory minimum wages to the median wages of all workers). In most countries, the level of the minimum wage as a proportion of the median wage (the ‘Kaitz index’) has grown between 2000 and 2018.

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  • Working papers

    Related working papers

  • Data

    Data

    Find data on statutory minimum wages in the EU.

    List of tables

    • Table 1: Social partners’ first reactions to the announced initiative on fair wages
    • Table 2: Overview of main arguments and proposals concerning an EU minimum wage initiative from social partners
    • Table 3: Gross minimum wages, selected EU Member States and the UK, 2019 and 2020
    • Table 4: Sub-minimum rates for selected EU Member States and the UK as at 1 January 2020
    • Table 5: Further statutory minimum wage rates for private sector workers in selected EU Member States
    • Table 6: Number of collective agreements covering low-paying job categories for countries without statutory minimum wages
    • Table 7: Minimum wages in collective agreements, applicable in 2019 for selected low-paid jobs
    • Table 8: Collective agreement coverage in Finland
    • Table 9: Overview of debates during 2019 on aspects of the minimum wage setting processes
    • Table 10: Demands for and agreements on targets for future minimum wages to address adequacy in selected EU Member States and the UK
    • Table 11: Regional statutory minimum wage rates
    • Table 12: Latest minimum wage research in EU Member States and the UK
    • Table 13: Overview of recent empirical research in the EU, Norway and the UK on employment impacts of minimum wage increases, 2019
    • Table 14: Policies influencing in-work poverty
    • Table A1: Network of Eurofound Correspondents – Members participating in the research

    List of figures

    • Figure 1: Conceptualising adequate minimum wages
    • Figure 2: Estimated share of employees earning 90% to 110% of the minimum wage, EU Member States, 2017
    • Figure 3: Proportions of female and male employees, EU level, 2017
    • Figure 4: Proportion of minimum wage workers per sector, EU level, 2017
    • Figure 5: Proportion of minimum wage workers per occupation (top 10), EU level, 2017
    • Figure 6: Hourly minimum wages, selected EU Member States, 2020
    • Figure 7: Minimum wage developments in real terms, 15 euro area countries, 2015 price levels
    • Figure 8: Minimum wage developments in real terms, non-euro area, 2015 price levels
    • Figure 9: Impact of purchasing power on the minimum wage value for selected EU Member States and the UK, as at 1 January 2020
    • Figure 10: Relative distance between purchasing power of lowest and median minimum wage EU Member States and the UK and highest minimum wage EU Member States and the UK, 2010–2020
    • Figure 11: Process for determining minimum wage rates for 2020
    • Figure 12: Number of minimum wage rate updates, EU Member States with statutory minimum wages and the UK, since 2010
    • Figure 13: Longer-term trend of development of statutory minimum wages relative to median wages of full-time employed workers, selected countries within the EU and the UK, 2000–2018
    • Figure 14: Proportion of minimum wage workers who find it difficult to make ends meet, EU average
    • Figure 15: Proportion of minimum wage workers who find it difficult to make ends meet
    • Figure 16: Making ends meet and minimum wages in relative and absolute terms
    • Figure 17: Monthly minimum wage as a proportion of the mean value of average monthly earnings by NUTS1 region, reference year 2016
    • Figure 18: Regional variation of relative monthly minimum wages, by NUTS1 region, 2016
    • Figure 19: Examples of countries with higher interregional differences in the proportion of minimum wage workers

     

Forskning udført forud for Det Forenede Kongeriges udtræden af Den Europæiske Union den 31. januar 2020 og offentliggjort efterfølgende kan omfatte data vedrørende de 28 EU-medlemsstater. Efter denne dato tager forskningen kun højde for de 27 EU-medlemsstater (EU-28 minus Det Forenede Kongerige), medmindre andet anføres.

Denne rapport præsenterer resultaterne af forskning, der er gennemført, inden covid-19 brød ud i Europa i februar 2020. Resultaterne tager derfor ikke højde for udbruddet.

Part of the series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

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