Industrial relations and social dialogue

Kollektive arbejdskonflikter i EU

Report
Udgivet
7 februar 2022
pdf
Formater
Executive summary in 22 languages
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Væsentlige konklusioner

  • Collective bargaining has emerged as the context of over a third of disputes in the EU, with grievances over company-level policies making up another quarter and grievances over public policy accounting for a further 18%.
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  • Collective bargaining has emerged as the context of over a third of disputes in the EU, with grievances over company-level policies making up another quarter and grievances over public policy accounting for a further 18%.
  • Problems over pay accounted for over 40% of disputes, employment problems for 20%, other aspects of working conditions for 16% and protests for 13%. Over 80% of disputes concerned matters of interest.
  • Existing data on industrial action in Europe is incomplete. Systematic collection will be required to provide a basis for comparative analysis based on clear definitions agreed at international level, so that it can be collated with other data to enable the calculation of the economic costs of disputes, to both employers and workers.
  • Disputes in the EU fall into five main clusters used in the typology: national disputes of interest and rights; extended disputes of interest concerning collective (pay) agreements; localised disputes on matters of interest, concerning employment problems, working time and restructuring with short work stoppages; localised disputes concerning workers’ rights and grievances over company policies; disputes concerning public policies.
  • The distribution of these types across countries did not follow any of the patterns that might be expected based on five of the existing typologies in the literature: typologies based on national differences in varieties of capitalism, union density, intensity of strike activity, types of industrial democracy and collective bargaining.
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Resumé

I de senere år har der været et generelt fald i antallet af faglige aktioner i EU's medlemsstater, dog afbrudt af stigninger i visse år. Under covid-19-pandemien er denne tendens fortsat, og de vigtigste arbejdskonflikter optræder ikke overraskende i sektoren for sundhed og sociale ydelser, uddanRead more

I de senere år har der været et generelt fald i antallet af faglige aktioner i EU's medlemsstater, dog afbrudt af stigninger i visse år. Under covid-19-pandemien er denne tendens fortsat, og de vigtigste arbejdskonflikter optræder ikke overraskende i sektoren for sundhed og sociale ydelser, uddannelsessektoren og transport- og logistiksektoren. Rapporten analyserer de data, som Eurofound indsamlede i 2018-2019 i forbindelse med pilotprojektet vedrørende databasen Industrial Action Monitor (IAM). Ved brug af klyngeanalyser klassificerede forskningen faglige aktioner i Europa i fem kategorier: nationale tvister om interesser og rettigheder, der undertiden involverer forskellige beskæftigelsesformer; udvidede tvister om kollektive lønoverenskomster: lokale tvister om beskæftigelsesproblemer, arbejdstid og omstrukturering, med deraf følgende kortvarige arbejdsstandsninger; lokale tvister om arbejdstagerrettigheder og klager over virksomhedspolitikker; samt tvister vedrørende offentlige politikker. 

Specifikt tegnede lønforhold sig for over 40 % af tvisterne, beskæftigelsesforhold tegnede sig for 20 %, andre aspekter af arbejdsvilkår udgjorde 16 %, og protester tegnede sig for 13 %. Med manglen på fuldstændige data om faglige aktioner i Europa in mente peger analysen på behovet for systematisk indsamling af empiriske beviser fremadrettet som grundlag for en sammenlignende analyse.

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Formater

  • Rapport

    Antal sider: 
    72
    Referencenr.: 
    EF21026
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2241-4
    Katalognr.: 
    TJ-05-21-371-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/060345
    Catalogue info

    Kollektive arbejdskonflikter i EU

    Formater

    Citér denne publikation: 

    Eurofound (2022), Collective labour disputes in the EU, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Executive summary

    Referencenr.: 
    EF21026EN1
    Catalogue info

    Kollektive arbejdskonflikter i EU

    Forfatter(e): 
    Eurofound

    Kan downloades på 22 sprog

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  • Tables and graphs

    The report contains the following lists of tables and figures

    List of tables

    Table 1: Information captured for each record type
    Table 2: Types of events recorded
    Table 3: Continuous variables in the clusters: mean values   
    Table 4: Categorical variables: distribution of indicator categories within clusters (percentages in columns)
    Table 5: Categorical variables: distribution of indicator categories between clusters (percentages in rows)


    Table A1: Overview of parameters covered and gaps in national statistics on industrial action and collective labour disputes
    Table A2: Number of realised industrial action events by country and sector from the IAM database, EU27 and UK
    Table A3: Number of strikes and lockouts by country and sector from the ILO data for the latest year available, EU27 and UK
    Table A4: Number of workers involved in realised industrial action events by country and sector from the IAM database (in thousands), EU27 and UK
    Table A5: Number of workers involved in strikes and lockouts by country and sector from the ILO data for the latest year available (thousands)
    Table A6: Number of days not worked as a result of realised industrial action events by country and sector from the IAM database (in thousands), EU27 and UK
    Table A7: Number of days not worked as a result of strikes and lockouts by country and sector from the ILO data for the latest year available (in thousands), EU27 and UK
    Table A8: Correlations of transformed variables from the second categorical principal components analysis model
    Table A9: Amount of indicator variance accounted for in the four-dimensional solution from the second categorical principal components analysis model
    Table A10: Cluster breakdown by country: distribution of disputes across clusters, EU27 and UK
    Table A11: Cluster breakdown by country: distribution of disputes within clusters, EU27 and UK
    Table A12: Cluster breakdown by sector: distribution of disputes across clusters
    Table A13: Cluster breakdown by sector: distribution of disputes within clusters
    Table A14: A representation of five typologies across countries showing (the lack of) relationships, EU27 and UK

    List of figures

    Figure 1: Eurofound’s concept of a labour dispute
    Figure 2: Context of disputes in the IAM database
    Figure 3: Main issue of disputes in the IAM database
    Figure 4: Matters of rights or interest for disputes in the IAM database
    Figure 5: Context of disputes in the data to be analysed
    Figure 6: Main issue of disputes in the data to be analysed
    Figure 7: Matters of rights or interest for disputes in the data to be analysed
    Figure 8: Context in which the labour disputes emerged, by sector (number)
    Figure 9: Context in which the labour disputes emerged, by country (%), EU27 and UK
    Figure 10: Detailed breakdown of main dispute issues (number)
    Figure 11: Labour disputes in non-standard forms of employment, by sector (number)
    Figure 12: Correspondence plot for clusters and countries, EU27 and UK
    Figure 13: Correspondence plot for clusters and sectors
    Figure 14: Dispute resolution by cluster (%)
    Figure 15: Dispute resolution involving a collective agreement by cluster (%)
    Figure 16: Typology of labour disputes by cluster and varieties of capitalism


    Figure A1: Dendrogram from the application of Ward’s method of clustering
    Figure A2: Relating Eurofound’s typology of labour disputes to the union density typology, EU27 and UK
    Figure A3: Relating Eurofound’s typology of labour disputes to the intensity of strike activity typology, EU27 and UK
    Figure A4: Relating Eurofound’s typology of labour disputes to the industrial democracy typology, EU27 and UK
    Figure A5: Relating Eurofound’s typology of labour disputes to the collective bargaining typology, EU27 and UK

Forskning udført forud for Det Forenede Kongeriges udtræden af Den Europæiske Union den 31. januar 2020 og offentliggjort efterfølgende kan omfatte data vedrørende de 28 EU-medlemsstater. Efter denne dato tager forskningen kun højde for de 27 EU-medlemsstater (EU-28 minus Det Forenede Kongerige), medmindre andet anføres.

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