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  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In June 1998, a new Civil Servants' Code was presented to the Greek
    Parliament, changing civil servants employment conditions in areas such as
    grading and disciplinary rules. The Code has received a mixed response from
    trade unions.

  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In the first six months of 1998, collective bargaining in Spain made good
    progress, with well over 5 million workers covered by a new or revised
    agreement. Wage moderation prevails and some progress has been made in
    employment security. However, few agreements have been reached on working

  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    Denmark's early retirement scheme is becoming increasingly popular. In 1997,
    30,300 people took early retirement, bringing the overall total at the end of
    1997 to some 136,000 - seven out of 10 of the population aged 60-67 years.
    With a 7% yearly increase, the number of people on early retirement will
    reach some 200,000 persons in 10 years' time (DK9710136N [1]).


  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    The Public Interest Disclosure Act [1] became law in July 1998 and will come
    into force in January 1999. It is designed to protect so-called
    "whistleblowers": employees who identify a serious wrong being carried out by
    their employers and who speak up publicly about it. The issue has gained
    growing prominence in the UK during the 1990s in the light of concerns to
    promote corporate responsibility. Some researchers see whistleblowing as the
    product of an increasingly information-oriented economy, combined with a
    growing tendency for employers to demand total loyalty, the result being that
    the possibility of "blowing the whistle" has risen while the freedom to do so
    has been curtailed.


  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In June 1998, a collective agreement was signed for workers all over Greece
    employed in enterprises providing security services and security systems.
    This is the first agreement for the sector, and covers approximately 10,000

  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In June 1998, the Spanish Parliament passed a new law to reorganise the
    postal service in line with the 1997 EU Directive on postal services. Some
    trade unions and the left-wing opposition parties have rejected the
    legislation, but other unions have shown a more favourable attitude after
    negotiating certain amendments.

  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    After a compromise between the national social partners at the end of March
    1998 on measures for school leavers (AT9803175N [1]), the Austrian government
    and parliament set to work to thrash out the final legal framework by 10 June
    1998. It provides for a series of temporary measures to facilitate the
    absorption of 1998 and 1999 school leavers into employment. ATS 500 million
    per year has been reserved for subsidies to enterprises and other
    organisations providing training and a further ATS 400 million per year for
    school-based courses. The number of unemployed school leavers on 15 November
    of each year triggers the release of funds. A maximum 4,000 first-time job
    seekers are expected to be without employment on 15 November 1998. Of these,
    40% are to be absorbed by special providers of apprenticeships, and 60% by
    special training courses at vocational schools. Employment and training
    projects will have to be launched between 1 November 1998 and 31 December
    1999. Three ministries will jointly decide on the applications but they will
    be handled and administrated by the Public Employment Service
    (Arbeitsmarktservice, AMS). Furthermore, measures prohibiting pupils with a
    large number of failures in the first year of certain types of school from
    repeating the year have been relaxed. In this way they will be kept in
    school, while in 1997 they were forced out on to the labour market. One
    estimate by the AMS puts the number at 3,500. The Ministry of Education
    (Bundesministerium für Unterricht und kulturelle Angelegenheiten, BMUK) says
    that many of them would have left school whether forced to or not.


  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In July 1998, the French Government announced that the publicly-owned GAN
    insurance group is to be sold off to the mutual insurance concern, Groupama.
    The trade unions, for the most part, were satisfied with the decision in
    favour of what they saw as the "best bidder" in social and employment terms.

  • Article
    27 juli 1998

    In October 1997, the presidents of six German service sector trade unions
    signed a general declaration on restructuring the trade union organisations
    in the service sector DE9710233F [1]). Five months later, in February 1998,
    the six unions published a common draft for a "political platform on the
    restructuring of trade union representation of interests in the service
    sector" (Politische Plattform zur Neustrukturierung der gewerkschaftlichen
    Interessenvertretung im Dienstleistungsbereich) (DE9803256N [2]).



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications