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  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The Norwegian Union of Hotel and Restaurant Workers (Norges Hotell- og
    Restaurantarbeider Forbund, HRAF) and the Norwegian Hospitality Association
    (Reiselivsbransjens Landsforening, RBL), agreed a new collective agreement
    for the hotel and restaurant sector on 24 April 1998. The agreement involves
    a general pay increase of NOK 3 per hour, and a low-pay bonus of NOK 2 per
    hour. The low-pay bonus will cover a large proportion of salaried employees
    in the sector. An additional increase in the minimum wage rate will add to
    the pay increases for certain groups of employees. Wages for employees
    working at night will increase by NOK 15 per hour. The parties have also
    included a provision stating that part-time employees already employed who
    want to extend their working time have priority over additional recruitment
    in cases where their company needs additional labour. Companies which fail to
    comply with this provision are obliged to state the reason for not doing so.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The Union of City-Centre Department Stores (Union des commerces de centre
    ville, UCV) followed the example of the French Banks' Association
    (Association française des banques, AFB) and entered into negotiations on
    the reduction of working time at the beginning of 1998 (FR9802194F [1]). Like
    the AFB, UCV too has now decided to terminate the sectoral collective
    agreement covering 40,000 workers on the grounds that the negotiations had
    "no chance of succeeding". The UCV entered the discussions with the aim of
    securing the annualisation of working time to compensate for the forthcoming
    move to a 35-hour statutory working week (FR9710169F [2]).


  • Article
    27 april 1998

    On 31 March 1998, the German construction workers' trade union, IG
    Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt (IG Bau), and the three Italian construction workers'
    unions, Feneal-Uil, Filca-Cisl and Fillea-Cgil, signed a new agreement for
    closer cooperation and mutual recognition of union membership. This agreement
    is a reaction by the unions to the constantly growing number of posted
    workers in the construction industry since freedom of movement was guaranteed
    by the introduction of the European single market. From now on, as a result
    of the new agreement, all members of the Italian construction workers' unions
    who work in Germany, even for a short period, are to get free legal advice
    and aid from the German union's offices. Furthermore Italian union members
    who work for a longer period in Germany can easily become members of IG Bau,
    and vice versa. At the moment, IG Bau has about 5,000 Italian members

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    On 20 April 1998, main proceedings were due to begin in case before the
    Labour Court, in which the Commercial Employees' Union (Handelsanställdas
    förbund, Handels) had sued Small Shops Sverige AB, the company which
    operates the 7-Eleven chain of shops, for SEK 1 million compensation for a
    breach of the collective agreement (SE9703108N [1]). On 8 April, however, the
    parties settled the dispute and agreed to withdraw the case from the court. A
    new collective agreement has been drawn up, in which the company agrees to
    pay its employees the same unsocial hours bonus as other employees in the
    retail trade.


  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The criteria for receiving social welfare benefits in Italy will change
    considerably with the recent creation of the "economic situation indicator"
    (Indicatore della situazione economica, Ise) (IT9803157N [1]). This means
    that in order to receive welfare benefits, every citizen will have to submit
    a self-declaration on his or her financial situation, which will also give
    the public authorities permission to check the applicant's personal finances.
    The Government and social partners believe that this system will be very
    useful in the fight against tax evasion and that it also guarantees greater
    fairness in the distribution of services.


  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The long-awaited report of Ireland's National Minimum Wage Commission,
    published in April 1998, is set to herald the introduction of a national
    minimum wage of around IEP 4.40 per hour. The target date set by the
    Commission is 1 April 2000, a date which would deliberately coincide with the
    commencement of a new national agreement between the social partners when the
    current /Partnership 2000/ (P2000) deal (IE9702103F [1]) expires. Therefore,
    the precise details of the minimum wage will also, as asserted by Enterprise,
    Trade and Employment Minister, Mary Harney, be hammered out "in the context
    of negotiations on a successor to P2000".


  • Article
    27 april 1998

    In April 1998, more than 20,000 workers in the postal services across the
    whole of Spain supported rallies and protests called by the Unitary Trade
    Union Platform (Plataforma Sindical Unitaria) against the liberalisation of
    these services. Workers and all the representative trade unions (CC.OO, UGT,
    CSI-CSIF,Sindicato Libre, CIG, ELA and CGT) have therefore now expressed
    their unanimous opposition to a bill on liberalisation presented by the

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    On 6 April 1998, the National Union of Teachers (NUT) published the results
    of a ballot which showed that 93% of its members who voted were prepared to
    take industrial action, short of a strike, over the issue of too much "red
    tape" and paperwork in schools. Doug McAvoy, the NUT general secretary said
    that "this was an overwhelming vote in favour of reducing the workload on
    teachers resulting from bureaucratic activities." However, the turnout in the
    ballot was low at only 28%.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The Portuguese subsidiary of the German-owned electronics company, Siemens,
    began a collective dismissal [1] procedure involving 208 workers in February
    1998, completing the final closure of a facility in Porto Alto that had
    provided 400 temporary, short-term and permanent jobs.


  • Article
    27 april 1998

    At their fifth negotiating meeting on 21 April 1998, the social partners in
    the construction industry succeeded in concluding an agreement on the wages
    of 130,000 blue-collar workers in the sector (AT9804177F [1]). Basic rates
    will rise by 2% from 1 May 1998, whilst actual wages will move up in line
    with this increase.



  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications