Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    The Swedish work injury insurance system, which covers both accidents and
    illnesses caused by work, was last changed in 1993. More stringent rules of
    cause and effect made it much more difficult for certain kinds of illnesses
    to be accepted as work-related. For example musculo-skeletal disorders,
    normally considered to be caused by repetitive strain and heavy loads, were
    no longer recognised as work-related injuries. The reason for the change of
    policy was that it was considered to be difficult to decide if the inability
    to work was related to working conditions or was a consequence of normal
    ageing or the natural development of an illness.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    At a meeting in Brussels on 16 February 1998, the EU Economic and Financial
    Affairs Council of Ministers expressed their doubts over the real impact on
    employment of a reduction of value-added tax (VAT) on labour-intensive
    services. This proposal was included in a Communication from the European
    Commission (EU9711161N [1]) drawn up in preparation for the special European
    Council Jobs Summit [2] held in Luxembourg in November 1997 (EU9711168F [3]).
    The Commission document examined the scope for Member States to reduce the
    rate of VAT levied on a limited number of labour-intensive local services,
    such as repair services, the renovation and repair of buildings, theme parks,
    cleaning and laundry services, home helps and care for children, disabled and
    older people. It was suggested that a reduction of VAT could be applied in
    very limited number of cases in order to test the job-creation potential of
    such measures, particularly for low-skilled and long-term unemployed
    individuals. Calls for a reduction of VAT on labour-intensive services were
    voiced by the social partners representing workers in the cleaning industry
    at a seminar held in October 1997 to discuss new employment opportunities in
    the sector (EU9710153F [4]).


  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    The Brussels-Capital region, the third federal authority in Belgium
    (alongside Flanders and Wallonia), has submitted its employment plan to the
    Federal Government in preparation for the Cardiff European Council meeting in
    June 1998.

  • Report summary
    16 marts 1998

    This document summarises the findings of the second European survey on working conditions with regard to gender differences in the workplace. With these reports the Foundation hopes to provide policy makers with a better understanding of the problems to overcome in order to promote gender sensitive workplaces.

  • Report summary
    16 marts 1998

    This summary is based on an analysis of findings of the second European survey on working conditions conducted in 1996. The survey findings show that stress and musculo-skeletal disorders are the main health risks at work and highlights the need for a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach to the prevention of occupational risks in Europe.

  • Report summary
    3 marts 1998

    The second European survey on working conditions (1996) shows the increase in the intensity of work. At the same time, workers' control over their work remains low. These two trends may explain why one-third of workers report stress. This report provides policy makers with information on stress factors in the workplace and therefore ways of preventing stress.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 20 January 1998, the company works council (Gesamtbetriebsrat) and the
    executive board of Adam Opel AG- the German subsidiary company of the General
    Motors Corporation (GM) - signed a new works agreement on future investments,
    safeguarding employment and reduction of labour costs. After more than 10
    months of negotiations, this so-called "site pact" (Standortvertrag) was
    concluded for the more than 44,000 employees at the three west German Opel
    production sites at Rüsselsheim, Kaiserslautern and Bochum. In the pact,
    Opel management commits itself to making new investments to secure the
    existing German production sites until the end of 2001 and promises,
    furthermore, that no redundancies on economic grounds (betriebsbedingte
    Kündigungen) will be made until the end of 2002. In exchange, the company
    works council agreed to further cuts in the company's "payments above
    contract wages" (übertarifliche Leistungen).

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In December 1997, the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and the Confederation of
    British Industry (CBI) agreed a joint statement identifying the key areas of
    agreement and disagreement between them on the statutory trade union
    recognition rules that the Government is committed to introducing (UK9801194F
    [1]). However, February 1998 saw a full-scale disagreement break out between
    the social partners over how the Labour Party's pre-election manifesto
    commitment to legislate on recognition should be interpreted (UK9704125F
    [2]). The argument centres around the wording in the manifesto, which states
    that unions should be recognised "where a majority of the relevant workforce
    vote in a ballot for the union to represent them".


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) has expressed concern about a
    proposal issued by the European Commission, which seeks to ensure the free
    movement of goods within the European Union during periods when an industrial
    dispute is taking place in a Member State.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Here we highlight two cases of company-level negotiations in Portugal over
    working hours and revision of wages. There is a relative lack of knowledge in
    Portugal about the scope and content of such informal, company-level
    collective bargaining, and of the significance of this type of bargaining for
    the country's industrial relations.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications