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  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In February 1998, both the Christian Democrats and the left-wing Groenlinks
    party formulated new legislative proposals to give employees a right to work
    part time. The latter party's initial bill on this issue had been blocked by
    the Christian Democrats in late 1997.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    Since 1 January 1998, the law has permitted collective agreements to make
    exceptions from the general ban on the night-time employment of women
    (AT9802163F [1]), though gender-neutral regulations will have to be enacted
    by 1 January 2001. On 16 March 1998, the Union of Metals, Mining and Energy
    Workers (Gewerkschaft Metall-Bergbau-Energie, GMBE) and the Federal
    Industrial Section of the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer
    Österreich, WKÖ) concluded such a collective agreement for manual workers
    in industrial enterprises in the metalworking sector. The following points
    were agreed:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/working-conditions-undefined-industrial-relations/decentralised-regulation-of-womens-night-work

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    Over the early months of 1998, the industrial dispute at Ryanair, Ireland's
    independent airline (IE9802141F [1]), has given rise to fears that the
    three-year /Partnership 2000/ agreement, negotiated between employers, trade
    unions and government in January 1997 (IE9702103F [2]) might be put in
    jeopardy over the issue of trade union recognition. Previously, observers and
    industrial relations professionals had focused on other pressures which might
    imperil the agreement or damage the prospects of another central agreement
    when the current deal expires.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/union-recognition-report-advocates-voluntary-procedures
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In Germany, collective bargaining is relatively centralised and takes place
    mainly in form of regional industry-level bargaining, but is - in certain
    industries - also quite frequent at national or company level. Trade unions
    may conclude collective contracts with employers' associations (association-
    or industry-level agreements [1], Verbandstarifverträge), or individual
    employers (company agreements [2], Firmentarifverträge). There are three
    main types of collective contracts: pay agreements [3], general agreements on
    pay grades [4] and framework agreements on employment conditions [5]. In
    addition, hybrid forms and agreements concerning special issues exist. The
    decisions about the issues, duration and level of negotiation are left to the
    social partners. Collective agreements are binding for all members of the
    negotiating parties. During the agreed period a peace obligation [6] is
    imposed on the parties. Each year, around 8,000 new collective agreements are
    concluded.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/association-level-agreement
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/company-agreement-4
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/pay-agreement-0
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/general-agreement-on-pay-grades
    [5] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/framework-agreement-on-employment-conditions
    [6] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/peace-obligation-4

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In early March 1998, a working group from the Institute of Labour of the
    Greek General Confederation of Labour (INE-GSEE) submitted to the GSEE a
    report containing proposals on the independence of trade unions from state
    intervention. The GSEE executive will examine the report, which is of a
    purely advisory nature, and decide whether or not to adopt any of its
    proposals.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    On 19 March 1998, The Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), one of UK's
    main trade unions in the motor manufacturing industry, warned that the
    long-term future of the Vauxhall (General Motors) plant in Luton (south-east
    Midlands), which employs about 4,500 workers, could be at risk. The TGWU
    national secretary for the industry, Tony Woodley, stated that: "The company
    has informed that there is a threat to the long-term future of the Luton
    plant. Most other European plants owned by General Motors have had the
    allocation of new models confirmed but as things stand there is no product
    earmarked to replace the Vectra at Luton."

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    The EU Council Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council or
    a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of
    undertakings for the purposes of informing and consulting employees [1]
    (94/45/EC) was adopted on 22 September 1994 and came into force two years
    later. For an outline of the Directive's history and content, as well as
    progress in national implementation legislation in the Member States, see
    EU9708142F [2]. Here we examine the findings of a new report which looks at
    the nature and experiences of "Article 13" EWC agreements. The Directive
    stipulates in Article 13 that multinational companies and groups with
    pre-emptive agreements concluded prior to the implementation deadline of 22
    September 1996, are effectively exempt from the provisions of the Directive,
    as long as the agreement covers the entire workforce and provides for
    transnational information and consultation. In their transposition measures,
    some Member States have ensured that Article 13 agreements are bound by
    further commitments under national law - for example, under a French
    ministerial instruction, agreements must be negotiated and signed by a trade
    union. Article 13 agreements are voluntary, while post-September 1996
    agreements governed by the procedures of the Directive's Articles 5 and 6
    must be negotiated by a special negotiating body (SNB) and must cover certain
    issues.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31994L0045&model=guichett
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/european-works-councils-update-one-year-after-the-transposition-deadline

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    Finnish banks experienced a severe crisis of profitability during the
    recession at the beginning of the 1990s. In 1997, the number of employees had
    been cut by half compared with the peak in the late 1980s, and the cuts are
    continuing in early 1998 at the same time as "internationalisation" is
    proceeding.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In February 1998, a legislative proposal to amend the Working Conditions Act
    was submitted to the Upper (Second) Chamber of the Dutch Parliament. The
    Government aims to ensure that the implementation of its policy on working
    conditions is carried out at company level as far as possible.

Series

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications