In early March 1998, a working group from the Institute of Labour of the
Greek General Confederation of Labour (INE-GSEE) submitted to the GSEE a
report containing proposals on the independence of trade unions from state
intervention. The GSEE executive will examine the report, which is of a
purely advisory nature, and decide whether or not to adopt any of its
The EU Council Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council or
a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of
undertakings for the purposes of informing and consulting employees 
(94/45/EC) was adopted on 22 September 1994 and came into force two years
later. For an outline of the Directive's history and content, as well as
progress in national implementation legislation in the Member States, see
EU9708142F . Here we examine the findings of a new report which looks at
the nature and experiences of "Article 13" EWC agreements. The Directive
stipulates in Article 13 that multinational companies and groups with
pre-emptive agreements concluded prior to the implementation deadline of 22
September 1996, are effectively exempt from the provisions of the Directive,
as long as the agreement covers the entire workforce and provides for
transnational information and consultation. In their transposition measures,
some Member States have ensured that Article 13 agreements are bound by
further commitments under national law - for example, under a French
ministerial instruction, agreements must be negotiated and signed by a trade
union. Article 13 agreements are voluntary, while post-September 1996
agreements governed by the procedures of the Directive's Articles 5 and 6
must be negotiated by a special negotiating body (SNB) and must cover certain
On 19 March 1998, The Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), one of UK's
main trade unions in the motor manufacturing industry, warned that the
long-term future of the Vauxhall (General Motors) plant in Luton (south-east
Midlands), which employs about 4,500 workers, could be at risk. The TGWU
national secretary for the industry, Tony Woodley, stated that: "The company
has informed that there is a threat to the long-term future of the Luton
plant. Most other European plants owned by General Motors have had the
allocation of new models confirmed but as things stand there is no product
earmarked to replace the Vectra at Luton."
In February 1998, a legislative proposal to amend the Working Conditions Act
was submitted to the Upper (Second) Chamber of the Dutch Parliament. The
Government aims to ensure that the implementation of its policy on working
conditions is carried out at company level as far as possible.
On 27 March 1998, Austria's national social partners announced a compromise
on a package of measures to absorb into the labour market young people
leaving school in 1998. This forms part of the national action plan on
employment drawn up in response to the November 1997 EU Jobs Summit
initiative (AT9802164F ).
Finnish banks experienced a severe crisis of profitability during the
recession at the beginning of the 1990s. In 1997, the number of employees had
been cut by half compared with the peak in the late 1980s, and the cuts are
continuing in early 1998 at the same time as "internationalisation" is
A dispute by 39 baggage handlers at the Ryanair independent airline,
agitating for trade union recognition (IE9802141F ), escalated into a
major national crisis over the weekend of 7-8 March 1998. Thousands of
members of the SIPTU trade union in the public sector refused to pass
official pickets, leading to the virtual shutdown of Dublin Airport.
The latest data available on the membership of Italy's main three trade union
confederations show a slight increase in 1995 and 1996, after a period of
decrease. This positive trend, however, is due to enrolments of retired
workers, while membership among active workers is still diminishing, though
at a slower rate than in recent years.
Total membership of the largest German trade union confederation, the German
Federation of Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB), stood at 8.6
million on 31 December 1997, a fall of 350,000 (or 3.9%) since 31 December
1996. Table 1 below provides details of changes in membership levels of the
13 DGB-affiliated industry unions since 1989. The 13 unions are:
The 29th congress of Greece's GSEE trade union confederation concluded in
March 1998 with the election of a new 45-member administrative board. As well
as issues such as development, employment, incomes and social protection, the
congress discussed the devaluation of the drachma - a move which has also
brought reactions from other social partner organisations.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
In 2022, the European Semester was streamlined to integrate the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) established on 19 February 2021 (Regulation (EU) 2021/241). While facing the geopolitical and economic challenges triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Member States have been implementing the national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) for more than one year and around 100 billion euro in RRF funds have already been disbursed.
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.