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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 1 January 1998, responsibility for the National Institute of Employment in
    these regions was transferred to the Generalitat of Catalonia and the Xunta
    of Galicia. This marked the beginning of a new model for the administration
    of employment services in Spain, whose main challenge is the effective
    coordination of the different authorities working in the sphere of job
    placement. Trade unions have objected to some aspects of the transfer in

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    A High-Level Group on the controversial issue of trade union recognition [1]
    has advocated that the problem should be tackled within the context of
    Ireland's voluntary collective bargaining system. If accepted, this would
    mean a mediation role on recognition for the Advisory Service of the Labour
    Relations Commission [2] and a non-binding recommendation from the Labour
    Court [3] if mediation were to fail. As matters currently stand, the Labour
    Court already issues recommendations on issues concerning trade union
    recognition, invariably upholding the right of workers to union


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 20 February 1998, representatives of decision-making bodies, businesses,
    trade unions and non -governmental organisations from the USA and the
    European Union met in Brussels to exchange views on codes of conduct aimed at
    safeguarding basic labour standards and protecting human rights. The meeting
    highlighted the recent adoption of such standards in several sectors on both
    sides of the Atlantic. The symposium was part of a wider transatlantic agenda
    of action which aims to promote the development of codes of conduct
    concerning working conditions.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In February 1998, the debate on dealing with breaches of labour law in
    Portugal, which has been underway for some time, entered its final phase.
    Changes are proposed to the penalties applied for non-compliance with labour

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    According to a recent analysis by the Institute for Economics and Social
    Science (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI),
    collectively agreed basic wages and salaries in *western Germany* rose on
    average by about 1.4% in 1997. Since the inflation rate was 1.8% in 1997,
    employees had to accept an average decrease in real wages of about 0.4
    percentage points. Furthermore, the 1997 growth in wages and salaries was
    much below the year's "margin of distribution" (Verteilungsspielraum) of 5.2%
    - calculated by adding the 1.8% increase in inflation to a 3.4% increase in
    productivity. Collectively agreed pay increases were thus the result of a
    very moderate wage policy, of which the current trend of not exhausting the
    "margin of distribution" is seen as a continuation. (DE9709232N [1]).


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Since early January 1998, the Greek shipping industry has been facing serious
    problems, with workers mobilising strongly and making numerous demands, while
    at the same time being divided over several issues. A key factor in the
    current difficulties is the ending of the system of "cabotage", whereby the
    country's own ships have a protected market position in Greek coastal

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In February 1998, the First Chamber of the Dutch Parliament approved the new
    Works Councils Act. A few days earlier, a research report had revealed that
    many small companies fail to comply with the requirements either to establish
    a works council or to hold regular meetings of staff.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The firefighters' strike, which had lasted for over three months, ended in
    February 1998 after both parties approved a conciliation proposal from the
    state conciliator. The strike is generally considered not to have achieved
    any special benefits for the strikers.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The 12th congress of Italy's Uil trade union confederation was held in
    Bologna on 4-6 February 1998. The key issues under discussion were the
    introduction of the 35-hour working week and union unity.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications