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  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    Over the early months of 1998, the industrial dispute at Ryanair, Ireland's
    independent airline (IE9802141F [1]), has given rise to fears that the
    three-year /Partnership 2000/ agreement, negotiated between employers, trade
    unions and government in January 1997 (IE9702103F [2]) might be put in
    jeopardy over the issue of trade union recognition. Previously, observers and
    industrial relations professionals had focused on other pressures which might
    imperil the agreement or damage the prospects of another central agreement
    when the current deal expires.


  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    On 19 March 1998, The Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), one of UK's
    main trade unions in the motor manufacturing industry, warned that the
    long-term future of the Vauxhall (General Motors) plant in Luton (south-east
    Midlands), which employs about 4,500 workers, could be at risk. The TGWU
    national secretary for the industry, Tony Woodley, stated that: "The company
    has informed that there is a threat to the long-term future of the Luton
    plant. Most other European plants owned by General Motors have had the
    allocation of new models confirmed but as things stand there is no product
    earmarked to replace the Vectra at Luton."

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In Germany, collective bargaining is relatively centralised and takes place
    mainly in form of regional industry-level bargaining, but is - in certain
    industries - also quite frequent at national or company level. Trade unions
    may conclude collective contracts with employers' associations (association-
    or industry-level agreements [1], Verbandstarifverträge), or individual
    employers (company agreements [2], Firmentarifverträge). There are three
    main types of collective contracts: pay agreements [3], general agreements on
    pay grades [4] and framework agreements on employment conditions [5]. In
    addition, hybrid forms and agreements concerning special issues exist. The
    decisions about the issues, duration and level of negotiation are left to the
    social partners. Collective agreements are binding for all members of the
    negotiating parties. During the agreed period a peace obligation [6] is
    imposed on the parties. Each year, around 8,000 new collective agreements are


  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In early March 1998, a working group from the Institute of Labour of the
    Greek General Confederation of Labour (INE-GSEE) submitted to the GSEE a
    report containing proposals on the independence of trade unions from state
    intervention. The GSEE executive will examine the report, which is of a
    purely advisory nature, and decide whether or not to adopt any of its

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    The EU Council Directive on the establishment of a European Works Council or
    a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of
    undertakings for the purposes of informing and consulting employees [1]
    (94/45/EC) was adopted on 22 September 1994 and came into force two years
    later. For an outline of the Directive's history and content, as well as
    progress in national implementation legislation in the Member States, see
    EU9708142F [2]. Here we examine the findings of a new report which looks at
    the nature and experiences of "Article 13" EWC agreements. The Directive
    stipulates in Article 13 that multinational companies and groups with
    pre-emptive agreements concluded prior to the implementation deadline of 22
    September 1996, are effectively exempt from the provisions of the Directive,
    as long as the agreement covers the entire workforce and provides for
    transnational information and consultation. In their transposition measures,
    some Member States have ensured that Article 13 agreements are bound by
    further commitments under national law - for example, under a French
    ministerial instruction, agreements must be negotiated and signed by a trade
    union. Article 13 agreements are voluntary, while post-September 1996
    agreements governed by the procedures of the Directive's Articles 5 and 6
    must be negotiated by a special negotiating body (SNB) and must cover certain


  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    On 27 March 1998, Austria's national social partners announced a compromise
    on a package of measures to absorb into the labour market young people
    leaving school in 1998. This forms part of the national action plan on
    employment drawn up in response to the November 1997 EU Jobs Summit
    initiative (AT9802164F [1]).


  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    Finnish banks experienced a severe crisis of profitability during the
    recession at the beginning of the 1990s. In 1997, the number of employees had
    been cut by half compared with the peak in the late 1980s, and the cuts are
    continuing in early 1998 at the same time as "internationalisation" is

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    In February 1998, a legislative proposal to amend the Working Conditions Act
    was submitted to the Upper (Second) Chamber of the Dutch Parliament. The
    Government aims to ensure that the implementation of its policy on working
    conditions is carried out at company level as far as possible.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    The latest data available on the membership of Italy's main three trade union
    confederations show a slight increase in 1995 and 1996, after a period of
    decrease. This positive trend, however, is due to enrolments of retired
    workers, while membership among active workers is still diminishing, though
    at a slower rate than in recent years.

  • Article
    27 marts 1998

    A dispute by 39 baggage handlers at the Ryanair independent airline,
    agitating for trade union recognition (IE9802141F [1]), escalated into a
    major national crisis over the weekend of 7-8 March 1998. Thousands of
    members of the SIPTU trade union in the public sector refused to pass
    official pickets, leading to the virtual shutdown of Dublin Airport.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications