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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) celebrated its 25th or "silver"
    anniversary in February 1998 with a conference entitled "New times - new
    unions". The event, jointly hosted by ETUC and the European Trade Union
    Institute (ETUI) from 5-7 February, also aimed to start a debate on the ETUC
    in a changing society - a debate which is set to culminate in the next ETUC
    congress in 1999. Speaking at the conference, ETUC president Fritz
    Verzetnitsch stressed how far ETUC had come, from being a "platform in search
    of a common denominator" to a "full trade union player" on the European
    stage. He also highlighted the important role played by ETUC in initiating
    and supporting the development of European industrial relations, involving
    not only the trade union leadership, but also the grassroots.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Currently, Germany is experiencing a broad debate on the future of its
    traditional system of branch-level collective agreements (branchenbezogene
    Flächentarifverträge). This is particularly the case in metalworking, where
    both collective bargaining parties - the IG Metall trade union and the
    Gesamtmetall employers' association - have recently presented new proposals
    for a modernisation of collective agreements (DE9712240F [1]). The debates
    among the bargaining parties reflect the fact that in recent years German
    branch-level agreements have been under increasing pressure from employers
    demanding more company-specific regulations on employment conditions. The
    bargaining parties have reacted to these pressures by making agreements more
    flexible, through a differentiation of collectively agreed norms and
    standards and a decentralisation of bargaining competence to the company
    level (DE9709229F [2]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined-working-conditions/new-proposals-for-a-reform-of-collective-bargaining-in-metalworking
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations-working-conditions/opening-clauses-increase-in-branch-level-collective-agreements

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    After more than a year of negotiations, an agreement was reached in early
    1998 between one of Portugal's largest banks, the BCP/BPA Group, and the
    Union of Banking Employees, which marks a major departure from traditional
    bargaining in this sector.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    According to estimates by the Association of Social Security Providers
    (Hauptverband der Sozialversicherungsträger, HSV) released at the beginning
    of February 1998, the average duration of sick leave was 13.3 calendar days
    per worker in 1997. Final figures will be known only in June. The early
    estimate for 1996 was 14.7 days and the final figure was 14.0 days. Both the
    1996 final data and the 1997 estimate are the lowest in well over a decade.
    This development continues a trend in evidence since 1991. During the period
    1989 to 1991 the average annual duration of sick leave peaked at 15.3 days.
    Since then it has been falling, at first by roughly 0.1 days per year until
    it reached 14.9 days in 1995, and much faster since then. The data include
    all recipients of wages and salaries but exclude civil servants and most
    apprentices.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    A collective agreement for Finnish doctors was signed on 28 February 1998,
    taking into account the application of the 1993 EU Directive on working time
    to their work. As a result, pay will increase by FIM 1,400 per month, and
    weekly working time by 1.25 hours.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In January 1998, the Italian Government passed a legislative decree on the
    reorganisation of the commerce sector. This first step towards a more
    "European" model of commerce has been opposed by employers but welcomed by
    trade unions.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In November 1997, the social partners represented on the Netherlands' Labour
    Foundation seemed to have reconfirmed the reputation of the Dutch
    "consultation model" by jointly averting a possible end to the policy of pay
    moderation. It was agreed in the Foundation to continue moderate pay
    increases in exchange for employee training opportunities and sick leave.
    However, initial analysis of negotiations in early 1998 reveals that, in
    practice, it is very difficult to translate the provisions of such an
    agreement reached at central level into a form that is acceptable to the
    social partners at sector or company level.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 12 February 1998, the European Commission adopted a report on the
    implementation of the Council Recommendation of 31 March 1992 on childcare
    (92/241/EEC [1]). The Recommendation was adopted as part of the Community's
    Third Equal Opportunities Action Programme (1991-5) and the Commission's
    social Action Programme accompanying the 1989 Community Charter of the
    Fundamental Social Rights of Workers [2] (the "Social Charter"). Both the
    Third Action Programme and the Social Charter emphasised the importance of
    measures to enable men and women to reconcile work and family life. Such
    measures were to act as a means to achieve greater equality of opportunity
    for women and men in the labour market. The 1998 guidelines for Member
    States' employment policies [3], which were adopted by the Council of
    Ministers in December 1997 (EU9712174N [4]), also call for adequate provision
    to be made for the care of children and other dependants in order to enable
    greater equality in the labour market.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c10916.htm
    [2] http://eurotext.ulst.ac.uk/policy/social/charter/92826097/92826toc.html#x
    [3] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/papers/guide2.htm
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/1998-employment-policy-guidelines-adopted

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The distribution of earned and household incomes (Arbeits- und
    Haushaltseinkommen) in Germany has been displaying growing "social
    polarisation" for some considerable time. This is the finding of a new report
    published by the Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) - "Verteilungspolitik; Chronik eines
    angekündigten politischen Selbstmords", Claus Schäfer, in WSI-Mitteilungen
    Vol. 50, No.10 (1997). The reasons for this development range from structural
    changes in employment relationships to the implementation of moderate
    collective bargaining policies and active redistribution through state social
    and tax policies.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications