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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The issue of legislating against discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin
    in working life has been debated in Sweden for the last 30 years, but it was
    not until 1994 that the first law was enacted. To the very last, even one of
    the trade union confederations asserted that collective agreements, not
    legislation, were the appropriate means of combating discrimination.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    At the February 1998 plenary session of the European Parliament, the
    representative of the current UK Council Presidency, Douglas Henderson
    confirmed that the Council of Ministers and the European Commission had no
    plans to review the decision to end intra-EU duty-free sales (EU9711166N
    [1]). This was despite claims made by representatives of the ferry and
    airport industry and trade unions in these sectors that the loss of up to
    140,000 jobs may result from the decision. The decision to end duty-free from
    1999 was taken over seven years ago by the Council of Ministers in 1991, as
    one of the taxation and excise measures to make the single market a reality.


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 16 February 1998, the president of the Public Services, Transport and
    Traffic Union (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr,
    ÖTV), Herbert Mai, stated in an interview that in the long run there is no
    alternative to an extensive reduction of working time in order to solve the
    unemployment problem. For Mr Mai, the introduction of the 30-hour week could
    be an important step towards halving unemployment in Germany. In the public
    services sector alone, a weekly reduction of one hour in working time would
    have an "arithmetical employment effect", producing 135,000 new jobs. At the
    moment, weekly working time in public services is 38.5 hours in western
    Germany and 40 hours in eastern Germany.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The third conference of female trade unionists in the Greek General
    Confederation of Labour (GSEE), held in February 1998, has highlighted the
    serious lack of representation and participation of women in trade union
    bodies in Greece.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In February 1998, the sectoral trade unions and Ferrovie dello Stato, the
    Italian national railway, signed an agreement aimed at increasing the
    company's efficiency, productivity and competitiveness.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    A recent study has found that 60% of Dutch employees suffer from work-related
    stress. The unions have placed this issue at the top of their agenda for the
    1998 collective bargaining round.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In February 1998, the UGT trade union confederation signed the second general
    collective agreement for the Spanish construction sector, over three months
    after it was signed by the CC.OO union confederation and the CNC employers'
    organisation, thus ending the bargaining deadlock in the industry.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The new collective agreement for white-collar workers in Luxembourg's iron
    and steel industry, signed in January 1998, includes an overall pay increase
    of 1.85% spread over two years and ratifies an existing profit-sharing

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 22 February 1998, negotiations between the Confederation of Danish
    Industries (Dansk Industri, DI) and the Central Organisation of Industrial
    Employees in Denmark (Centralorganisationen af Industriansatte i Danmark,
    CO-industri) broke down. The DI/CO-industri bargaining unit covers some
    210,000 workers in industry, or some 62% of all the employees whose
    collective agreements are due to be renewed by 1 March 1998. The norm-setting
    effect of the agreement in industry is estimated to affect agreements
    covering an additional 100,000 workers. As other bargaining units in the
    private sector await the outcome of the negotiations in the industrial
    sector, the breakdown in talks meant that a major conflict across the whole
    private sector could have broken out on 2 March 1998, the day after the
    current agreements expire.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Trade unions in the state-owned aircraft maintenance company, TEAM Aer
    Lingus, are considering a management offer to buy out employment guarantees
    made to workers who transferred over from the former maintenance and
    engineering division of the parent company in 1990. The guarantees are in the
    form of individually signed "letters of comfort" and state that the workers
    formally remain as employees of Aer Lingus"as if TEAM did not exist"
    (IE9711235F [1]).



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications