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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Recent reforms of the labour market in Spain propose new forms of
    institutional control over dismissal for objective reasons, through
    collective bargaining. However, a December 1997 subsectoral local agreement
    in the Vilafranca del Penedès wine-making sector has revealed certain
    constraints on the power of workers' representatives to negotiate and monitor

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In January 1998, a two-day strike on Luxembourg Railways, protesting against
    proposed pensions reform, was supported by the great majority of employees.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The parties in bargaining over the pay and conditions of Swedish ships'
    officers are the Swedish Engineers Officers' Association (Svenska
    Maskinbefälsförbundet, SMBF) the Swedish Ship Officers' Association
    (Sveriges Fartygsbefälsförening, SFBF) and the Sea Officers' Union
    (Föreningen Sjöbefälet), on the one hand, and the Swedish Ship Owners'
    Association (Sveriges Redareförening, SRF) on the other. When the 1998 talks
    started, the trade unions called for pay increases which would increase the
    employers' costs by 11% - far beyond what other unions have claimed in the
    1998 bargaining round.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The 1969 Night Work of Women Act (Frauen-Nachtarbeitsgesetz, FrNArbG)
    originally ruled out the employment of women over an 11-hour period including
    that from 20.00 to 06.00. The bulk of the law comprised detailed exemptions
    and exceptions. When Austria acceded to the European Economic Area on 1
    January 1994 the law was amended to permit night work indiscriminately from
    the year 2001. Driven by employment concerns, new legislation was enacted in
    late 1997 permitting the social partners to conclude collective agreements on
    the night-time employment of women from 1 January 1998 provided that the
    right to return to a daytime occupation in case of a proven health hazard
    were included along with measures to compensate for the burdens of night work
    or to alleviate them. Special consideration has to be given to any necessary
    care of children up to the age of 12 (AT9711148N [1]). Collective agreements
    may empower plant-level agreements to make exceptions to the ban on night


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The death in hold-ups of three Belgian security guards collecting and
    delivering cash sparked off a general strike in the sector in January 1998,
    which continues at the time of writing (mid-February). Demanding better
    security and the recognition of risks specific to this kind of job, security
    guards are seeking to define the conditions for the practice of this new
    profession. However, these demands, which result in new costs for the
    employers (the security and patrol companies) jeopardise their business. The
    principal customers, banks and large stores, are pressing for a reduction in
    the costs of these services and seeking ways of doing without them, and jobs
    are threatened.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Total membership of the world's largest sectoral free trade union, the German
    metalworkers' union, IG Metall, stood at 2.7 million on 31 December 1997, a
    fall of 960,000 (or 27%) since 1991. For the first time since German
    unification, annual membership figures have now fallen below the 1989
    pre-unification level, when IG Metall existed in western Germany only. The
    1991 post-unification net growth of 897,675 members ( 33%) has thus melted
    away. The development of IG Metall's membership is examined in a new report
    from the Institute of the German Economy (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft,
    IW) - "Rücksturz auf 1989 - Zur Entwicklung der IGM-Mitgliedszahlen 1997", W
    Pege, in IW-Gewerkschaftsreport 1/98 (forthcoming). The table below provides
    details of changes in membership levels since 1989.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 3 February 1998, the Danish Association of Professional Technicians
    (Teknisk Landsforbund, TL) publicly announced its intention to seek a shift
    from a 37-hour working week with overtime payments for any additional hours
    to a fixed monthly salary (known as joblønor "job-salary"), whereby
    technicians would not receive overtime payments for working more than 37
    hours per week.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    A month-long dispute over industrial restructuring hit Spain's publicly-owned
    coalmining companies in December 1997-January 1998. The dispute arose
    following the Government's amendments of agreements reached in May 1997,
    following the release of a critical report by the European Commission. A
    satisfactory settlement was eventually reached on 27 January 1998.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The UK - then led by a Conservative Government - was one of two European
    Union (EU) Member States (along with Denmark) that decided to "opt out" of
    the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) which was agreed as part of the
    Maastricht Treaty on European Union of 1992. The third stage of EMU,
    involving a single currency - the euro - is due to get underway at the
    beginning of 1999.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications