The trade union in the Netherlands' trend-setting metalworking industry is
demanding a 4.75% increase in pay for 1998. By contrast, the VNO-NCW
employers' organisation wants to eliminate pay scales based on automatic wage
increases and would rather pay variable wages based on individual
In December 1997, the Finnish social partners signed an incomes policy
agreement for the period from January 1998 to January 2000. The agreement -
which is probably one of the most comprehensive in Finnish history, covering
over 98% of wage-earners - provides for pay increases which will raise
average labour costs by about 2.6% in 1998 and 1.7% in 1999.
In January 1998, both the UGT and CC.OO trade union confederations proposed
measures aimed at improving the situation of unemployed people in Spain. UGT
has proposed the creation of a branch for unemployed people within the trade
union and CC.OO has suggested lower taxes for them.
The Greek Government is seeking to alter the way in which labour relations
are conducted in public enterprises, by means of an article of a taxation
bill submitted to Parliament in January 1998. This has aroused strong
opposition amongst the trade unions and has given rise to strike action.
Worker representatives are aiming to guarantee acquired rights at Petrogal, a
Portuguese oil-refining company which is engaged in a process of
"outsourcing", and the dispute resulted in strike action in December 1997.
Information and consultation are seen as mechanisms through which workers can
Labour flexibility has returned to the agenda in Italy after the Cgil, Cisl
and Uil trade union confederations reached agreement in December 1997 on
"guidelines to follow in negotiations between the social partners to support
the growth of investment and job creation in the Mezzogiorno". The agreement
has provided the opportunity for discussion of some of the issues that will
be addressed in forthcoming talks on both the 35-hour working week and the
revision of the central agreement of July 1993.
December 1997 and January 1998 have seen industrial action in public
transport and refuse collection, called by the Dutch civil service trade
union, AbvaKabo, in support of wage claims by workers recruited on several
job-creation schemes. Amsterdam city council will meet the demands, while the
city of Leiden has also taken a positive stance.
The Finnish Ship's Officers Union has not approved the country's new central
incomes policy agreement, which was signed on 12 December 1997 by STTK, the
confederation to which it belongs. According to the union, the reason for its
refusal is an imbalance in pay between crew and officers, which need to be
Since Denmark's industry sector concluded a three-year collective agreement
in 1995, while the rest of the private sector bargaining units concluded
two-year agreements which were renewed in 1997 by one-year agreements
(DK9705110F ), industry is faced with two main issues in the 1998
bargaining round, which began in January. On the one hand, the industry
bargaining parties - the Confederation of Danish Industries (Dansk Industri,
DI) and the Central Organisation of Industrial Employees in Denmark
(Centralorganisationen af Industriansatte i Danmark, CO-industri) - will have
to catch up with the results achieved in the other bargaining units
(transport, building and construction, hotel and restaurants, and services)
in 1995 and 1997. On the other hand, the parties will aim to set a norm by
finalising their bargaining prior to these other areas, whose collective
agreements also expire on 1 March 1998.
According to a report on collective bargaining in Spain in 1997, conducted by
the CEOE employers' confederation, changes have taken place in pay structure,
involving an increase in the number of productivity bonuses and a reduction
in the incidence of length-of-service payments. Clauses transforming
temporary into secure jobs have had little effect despite the April 1997
intersectoral agreement for secure employment.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the gas sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the gas sector in the EU Member States.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
Hospital and civil aviation workers have been severely impacted by COVID-19. While hospitals are on the frontline when it comes to fighting this global pandemic, civil aviation is experiencing the most challenging crisis ever encountered in the sector. This study explores how social dialogue and collective bargaining are playing a role in the way both sectors are adapting to the pandemic. What kind of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?