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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In 1957, the German Trade Union Federation (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB)
    and its affiliated trade unions set up a joint company pension scheme
    (Unterstützungsfonds) for their employees. Traditionally, the scheme was
    financed on a pay-as-you-go basis. In the last couple of years, however, the
    financing of the pension scheme has become increasingly problematic for a
    number of reasons:

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    According to recently-published official figures, 1997 was a year in which
    collective bargaining in Portugal did not differ much, in numerical terms,
    from previous years. This demonstrates that the bargaining system still
    sticks to a certain formal rigidity that is not accompanied by substantive
    change. Figures also indicate that although the number of strikes remained
    stable, some reduction in other indicators of strike mobilisation - workers
    involved and days lost, for example - is noticeable.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Spanish employers have supported continuity in electing José María Cuevas
    as chair of the CEOE-CEPYME employers' confederation for the fifth time, in
    February 1998. In his inaugural speech, he advocated policies including
    fiscal reform to reduce employers' social security contributions.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 11 June 1997 Parliament instructed the Ministry of Labour, Health and
    Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales,
    BMAGS) to devise, by the end of the year, amendments to the Works
    Constitution Act (Arbeitsverfassungsgesetz, ArbVG) that would remove
    citizenship as a criterion for eligibility in works council elections. A
    similar amendment was demanded for the Chamber of Labour Act
    (Arbeiterkammergesetz, AKG) (AT9706121N [1]). One week late, on 8 January
    1998, the Ministry circulated draft amendments to the AKG for review by the
    social partners, other ministries, and provincial governments. In the
    covering letter, the Ministry asked for comments not only on the Chamber of
    Labour Act but also on similar proposed changes to the ArbVG. The review
    period ended on 9 February 1998 but some organisations were still working on
    their response by the end of the month, one of them being the Austrian Trade
    Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/action-taken-on-nationality-based-discrimination

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Following the recent demonstrations by unemployed groups, the French Prime
    Minister, Lionel Jospin, announced in February 1998 the main measures that
    the Government will be implementing to assist those most affected by
    unemployment.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The revised Basic Agreement between Norway's LO trade union confederation and
    NHO employers' organisation was approved in February 1998. The attempt to
    extend the agreement's new provisions on the minimum level of members
    required for a union to enter into a collective agreement to other basic
    agreements, has led to complications in the negotiations between NHO and the
    YS vocational union confederation.

  • Report
    17 februar 1998

    This working paper consists of examples of good practice in combating age barriers in employment in a variety of European countries. Its primary intention is to inform the debate in Europe about age and employment by providing practical examples of how 'different' private and public organisations have set about trying to minimise the impact of age barriers in job recruitment and training.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Luxembourg's two public transport trade unions called a 48-hour strike in
    January 1998 in protest against the Government's intention to reduce their
    members' pensions.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO)
    celebrates the 100th anniversary of its creation in 1998. The celebration
    will be most noticeable through a wide range of cultural and union activities
    unfolding throughout the year (which will be reported in subsequent EIRO
    records), and here we take the opportunity to look at recent developments in
    LO's organisation, membership and political links.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In the past decade, Ireland has developed a system of social participation
    which plays a major role in the conduct of economic and social policy. This
    approach began in 1987, with a three-year agreement [1] between the
    Government, the trade union movement, employers and agricultural interests.
    This lifted the country from the deep economic and social crisis of the 1980s
    and facilitated a return to growth. That agreement was followed by three
    further social partnership programmes, the latest of which is /Partnership
    2000/ (IE9702103F [2]). These agreements determine the growth of pay in both
    the public and private sector, but also embody a negotiated approach to a
    wide range of economic and social policies. The consensus which underpinned
    these agreements was, to a large extent, developed in the National Economic
    and Social Council (NESC), a deliberative body in which the social partners
    and senior civil servants undertake analysis and discussion of strategic
    issues. Following agreement on the strategic priorities, negotiation of the
    programmes was undertaken in a separate body, the Central Review Committee,
    which also monitors the implementation of the programmes.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/programme-for-national-recovery-pnr
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme

Series

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications