A first collective agreement regulating the terms and conditions of
employment for employees of Italy's temporary work agencies was signed by
sectoral trade unions and employers' associations in December 1997.
The trade union in the Netherlands' trend-setting metalworking industry is
demanding a 4.75% increase in pay for 1998. By contrast, the VNO-NCW
employers' organisation wants to eliminate pay scales based on automatic wage
increases and would rather pay variable wages based on individual
In December 1997, the Finnish social partners signed an incomes policy
agreement for the period from January 1998 to January 2000. The agreement -
which is probably one of the most comprehensive in Finnish history, covering
over 98% of wage-earners - provides for pay increases which will raise
average labour costs by about 2.6% in 1998 and 1.7% in 1999.
In January 1998, both the UGT and CC.OO trade union confederations proposed
measures aimed at improving the situation of unemployed people in Spain. UGT
has proposed the creation of a branch for unemployed people within the trade
union and CC.OO has suggested lower taxes for them.
The Greek Government is seeking to alter the way in which labour relations
are conducted in public enterprises, by means of an article of a taxation
bill submitted to Parliament in January 1998. This has aroused strong
opposition amongst the trade unions and has given rise to strike action.
Worker representatives are aiming to guarantee acquired rights at Petrogal, a
Portuguese oil-refining company which is engaged in a process of
"outsourcing", and the dispute resulted in strike action in December 1997.
Information and consultation are seen as mechanisms through which workers can
Labour flexibility has returned to the agenda in Italy after the Cgil, Cisl
and Uil trade union confederations reached agreement in December 1997 on
"guidelines to follow in negotiations between the social partners to support
the growth of investment and job creation in the Mezzogiorno". The agreement
has provided the opportunity for discussion of some of the issues that will
be addressed in forthcoming talks on both the 35-hour working week and the
revision of the central agreement of July 1993.
December 1997 and January 1998 have seen industrial action in public
transport and refuse collection, called by the Dutch civil service trade
union, AbvaKabo, in support of wage claims by workers recruited on several
job-creation schemes. Amsterdam city council will meet the demands, while the
city of Leiden has also taken a positive stance.
The Finnish Ship's Officers Union has not approved the country's new central
incomes policy agreement, which was signed on 12 December 1997 by STTK, the
confederation to which it belongs. According to the union, the reason for its
refusal is an imbalance in pay between crew and officers, which need to be
Since Denmark's industry sector concluded a three-year collective agreement
in 1995, while the rest of the private sector bargaining units concluded
two-year agreements which were renewed in 1997 by one-year agreements
(DK9705110F ), industry is faced with two main issues in the 1998
bargaining round, which began in January. On the one hand, the industry
bargaining parties - the Confederation of Danish Industries (Dansk Industri,
DI) and the Central Organisation of Industrial Employees in Denmark
(Centralorganisationen af Industriansatte i Danmark, CO-industri) - will have
to catch up with the results achieved in the other bargaining units
(transport, building and construction, hotel and restaurants, and services)
in 1995 and 1997. On the other hand, the parties will aim to set a norm by
finalising their bargaining prior to these other areas, whose collective
agreements also expire on 1 March 1998.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on care use and reliance on other support. The report analyses policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States that have proven particularly important for the quality of life of older citizens, for example, measures to support independent living.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
This policy brief explores the social situation of Europeans with a disability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from the March–April 2021 Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, it compares the situation of respondents with and without a disability in three areas: perceptions of the healthcare system, mental well-being and financial precarity.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
This report examines the phenomenon of overtime in the EU, providing a comparative description of how it is regulated in EU Member States. It also assesses how contentious the issue can be and investigates the reasons behind the various disputes and debates. Finally, the report attempts to quantify and characterise the share of overtime for which workers are not paid or compensated. The analysis is based on information collected in EU Member States by the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2021 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2021. The range of topics as a result is broad, from the growing diversity of employment across EU regions to developments in minimum wages, and of course the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Every year, Eurofound compiles a report summarising the key developments in minimum wages across EU countries. The report explains how minimum wages are set and describes the role of social partners, covering the evolution of statutory rates, collectively agreed wages and the national debates on these issues.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?