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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The adjustment of Spain's national minimum wage in line with the projected
    rate of inflation for 1998 is considered insufficient by the trade unions. A
    dispute has arisen owing to the loss of the minimum wage's purchasing power,
    repeated failures to increase it and its wide differential with the average
    national wage, at a time when the Spanish economy is progressing favourably.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A report published by the Statistical Office of the European Communities
    (Eurostat) on 9 December 1997 shows that, despite the adoption of equal pay
    legislation at European level more than 20 years ago, a large pay gap remains
    between men and women. The report (, Eurostat statistics in focus, Population
    and social conditions, 15/97 [1]), summarises the findings of a survey on pay
    in four Member States and gives the hourly earnings of women as a percentage
    of those of men as 84% in Sweden, 73% in France and Spain and just over 64%
    in the UK. The study includes data on both full- and part-time workers, but
    excludes overtime payments (which means that in certain occupations, pay gaps
    are likely to be underestimated as women are less likely than men to work
    overtime).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/eurostat/compres/en/9597/6309597a.htm

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Swedish employees are entitled to leave of absence for a number of reasons,
    and the Government's plans to introduce yet another one - for starting or
    working in their own businesses - were not met with overwhelming enthusiasm
    when they were made public in spring 1997. The Swedish Employers'
    Confederation (Svenska Arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) and the National Agency
    for Government Employers (Arbetsgivarverket) objected, and the Swedish Trade
    Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO) doubted that there was a need
    for an act of the kind proposed.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The Minister for Women's Affairs has made it clear that she wishes to make
    progress in 1998 on the issue of women's careers in enterprises. Studies in
    the past years have proven the existence of a "glass ceiling" through which
    women are unlikely to pass. An 11-point women's petition submitted to
    Parliament in 1997 put combating this glass ceiling first on the list of
    demands. Specifically, the petition suggested that companies should be
    excluded from public contracts and subsidies unless they had taken measures
    to employ women at all hierarchical levels in proportion to their share in
    the population. The Ministry sees little opportunity to go quite that far,
    but it does want to take action in this direction.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    On 24 November 1997, the general meeting of the peak employers' association
    (Vereinigung der Arbeitgeberverbände in Bayern, VAB) in the federal state
    (Land) of Bavaria decided to merge with the Bavarian peak trade association
    (Landesverband der Bayerischen Industrie, LBI). The new Landpeak association
    for Bavarian enterprises is called Vereinigung der Bayerischen Wirtschaft
    (VBW). On 17 December the constituent assembly of the VBW elected Erich
    Sennebogen as president.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Since the 1980s, intense product market competition among the industrialised
    countries has led to a search for new products and new methods of production.
    At the same time, new technology is changing the ways that labour markets
    work and UK labour institutions have increasingly come into question. The UK
    in particular has experienced a sharp decline in the coverage of collective
    bargaining and of unionisation. Most of these developments have either been
    the consequence of, or the reason for, increasing flexibility. Yet what is
    "flexibility", what does it mean and what is it doing?

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Although half of the private sector bargaining area conducted collective
    bargaining in the spring (DK9705110F [1]), 1997 was a relatively peaceful
    year on the Danish labour market, with fewer conflicts than in previous years
    when bargaining occurred. According to statistics from the Danish Employers'
    Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) the number of working days
    lost due to industrial action in 1997 - at 82,992 days - was significantly
    lower than in 1995 and 1993. The main reason for the lower figure is that
    only half of the private sector area conducted collective bargaining in 1997,
    while the whole area did so in 1995 and 1993.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/the-1997-danish-collective-bargaining-round-completed

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Ireland's Labour Court made its biggest ever individual equal pay award
    recently when it held that four communications assistants represented by the
    Civil and Public Services Union (CPSU) and employed by the Irish Aviation
    Authority were entitled to equal pay with two male radio officers. The
    government department with overall responsibility for the Authority, the
    Department of Public Enterprise, has decided to accept the ruling, which was
    issued on 28 November 1997 and which means each of the four women will
    receive a total of IEP 100,000 on a backdated basis.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A new three-year collective agreement was signed at Cargolux SA, the
    Luxembourg air freight company, in December 1997. It contains substantial
    improvements, including the restoration of certain benefits lost in 1995.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications