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  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    At the end of January 1998, German unemployment reached a new post-war record
    high, with more than 4.8 million people registered as unemployed. The
    announcement of the latest unemployment figures on 5 February was accompanied
    by nationwide protests of unemployed people all over Germany. The protests
    were organised by independent organisations of jobless people, self-help
    groups and trade unions' jobless committees and groups. The unions played an
    important role in coordinating, organising and supporting the protests.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    The Swedish Industrial Union (Industrifacket), which organises workers in the
    leather and the clothing industries, campaigns actively against child labour.
    In 1996 it drew the attention of the Swedish president of the European
    football organisation, UEFA, to the fact that the footballs used in major
    tournaments are manufactured by small children in Pakistan. The UEFA
    president, Lennart Johansson, answered that he and the other representatives
    of the sport shared the union's view on child labour. Mr Johansson in turn
    took up the matter with the international football organisation, FIFA, and in
    September the same year FIFA made an agreement with three international trade
    union confederations not to order footballs manufactured by children. As a
    result, the world's leading sports-equipment companies decided to invest in
    projects to abolish child labour in Pakistani football factories.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In August 1997 the authorities rejected a bid made by a group of activists
    from the Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) to
    form an association called the Austrian Free Trade Union (Freie Gewerkschaft
    Österreichs, FGÖ) (AT9705113N [1]). They argued that its proposed name
    might give rise to confusion with a social democrat organisation, the
    Austrian Federation of Free Trade Unions (Österreichischer Bund freier
    Gewerkschaften, ÖBFG). The ÖBFG is dormant but social democrat trade
    unionists have kept the name alive in order to have something to fall back on
    in case the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB), the sole formal trade union existing in Austria,
    should ever disband.


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    Belgium proudly boasts one of the oldest consumer prices indices in the
    world. Since the First World War, the government has carefully monitored how
    much Belgians spend on their daily consumption needs. What started as a
    rather rough indicator in 1914 has developed over the years into a refined
    instrument for measuring the price increases of different consumer products
    and the inflation rate.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 3 February 1998, France's AFB banking employers' organisation gave notice
    of termination of the collective agreement which has regulated the banking
    sector since 1947. Negotiations on updating this agreement have been
    unsuccessful, and representatives of employers and staff now have until 1
    January 2000 to agree a new package.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    At its general council meeting on 10 February 1998, the LO trade union
    confederation voted in favour of industry-level settlements in the spring
    1998 bargaining round in Norway's private sector. In addition, LO wants to
    bargain with the NHO employers' confederation over the principles which are
    to apply to the forthcoming reform of further education and training. LO
    would like to see these negotiations finalised before the sectoral bargaining
    commences, but NHO has rejected such talks.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In February 1998, BBV - the second largest banking group in Spain - called on
    the conservative Government to progress further with labour reform, reduce
    the cost of dismissal and continue to reduce public expenditure in order to
    meet the challenge of the single European currency.

  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    In December 1997, the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of
    Europe (UNICE) declared its willingness to enter into negotiations with the
    European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
    of General Economic Interest (CEEP) and the European Trade Union
    Confederation (ETUC) on the rights of workers on fixed-term contracts. These
    negotiations would be held under the procedures set out in the Maastricht
    social policy Agreement [1]. This move follows the successful conclusion of
    similar negotiations on parental leave in December 1995 (TN9801201S [2]) and
    on part-time work in June 1997 (EU9706131F [3]). From the outset of the
    latter negotiations, UNICE had rejected the trade unions' desire to negotiate
    on all forms of "atypical employment", because of what it perceived to be the
    very different issues pertaining to part-time and to fixed-term employment.
    Regulation of fixed-term employment currently varies significantly between
    Member States, particularly in relation to the possible maximum duration of
    such contracts and the restrictions pertaining to their use. These are the
    issues which will be of particular concern to the trade union side, now that
    ETUC has agreed in March 1998 a mandate to enter into negotiations.


  • Article
    27 februar 1998

    On 23 January 1998, the High Court in London ruled in nine test cases brought
    by ex-mineworkers suing British Coal, the former nationalised coal authority,
    for causing them chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The outcome was eagerly
    awaited by tens of thousands other potential claimants, and could affect
    miners who worked in coalmines as long ago as 1947. Over 100 other cases are
    already awaiting judgment and there are thousands of other claims pending,
    according to solicitors working on behalf of injured former members of the
    National Union of Mineworkers. The test cases, taken by ex-miners from the
    Durham, Yorkshire and South Wales coalfields took 17 months to reach the High


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications