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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Although half of the private sector bargaining area conducted collective
    bargaining in the spring (DK9705110F [1]), 1997 was a relatively peaceful
    year on the Danish labour market, with fewer conflicts than in previous years
    when bargaining occurred. According to statistics from the Danish Employers'
    Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) the number of working days
    lost due to industrial action in 1997 - at 82,992 days - was significantly
    lower than in 1995 and 1993. The main reason for the lower figure is that
    only half of the private sector area conducted collective bargaining in 1997,
    while the whole area did so in 1995 and 1993.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A new three-year collective agreement was signed at Cargolux SA, the
    Luxembourg air freight company, in December 1997. It contains substantial
    improvements, including the restoration of certain benefits lost in 1995.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Ireland's Labour Court made its biggest ever individual equal pay award
    recently when it held that four communications assistants represented by the
    Civil and Public Services Union (CPSU) and employed by the Irish Aviation
    Authority were entitled to equal pay with two male radio officers. The
    government department with overall responsibility for the Authority, the
    Department of Public Enterprise, has decided to accept the ruling, which was
    issued on 28 November 1997 and which means each of the four women will
    receive a total of IEP 100,000 on a backdated basis.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A strike in the mining companies, Hunosa and Minas de Figaredo, escalated
    into a well-supported general strike in the whole Spanish mining industry in
    January 1998.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    There has, in recent years, been an increasing focus on corporate conduct in
    terms of social, ethical and environmental performance. The experience of
    large multinational corporations such as Nike and Shell, which have been
    faced with protest campaigns against their social and environmental policies,
    has galvanised actors in this area. Many organisations are beginning to
    recognise that their profitability in the long term depends as much on on
    their performance in satisfying the aspirations of their "stakeholders" -
    including customers, suppliers, employees, local communities, investors,
    governments, and interest groups - in terms of their social and environmental
    record, as it does on price and quality.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Joining the European Union in 1995 made it necessary for Austria to improve
    the regulations on employee protection against hazards. This included
    particularly the appointment of safety officers in enterprises, the
    documentation of hazards, and the availability and job descriptions of
    occupational medical practitioners. A plan was drawn up to implement better
    protection in stages, starting in 1997 with firms employing more than 100
    workers. On 1 January 1998, firms with between 51 and 100 employees became
    subject to the new regulations, and on 1 January 1999 those with 11 to 50
    employees will follow. Finally in 2000, the remaining companies with 10 or
    fewer employees will also be covered.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    An unusual collective agreement has been concluded between the Swedish Energy
    Employers' Association (Energiföretagens Arbetsgivareförening, EFA) on the
    one hand, and the Association of Graduate Engineers
    (Civilingenjörsförbundet, CF), the Swedish Union for Technical and Clerical
    Employees in Industry and Services (Svenska Industritjänstemannaförbundet
    SIF), the Association of Management and Professional Staff (Ledarna) and the
    Union of Service and Communication (SEKO) on the other. The agreement, which
    came into force on 1 January 1998, regulates general terms of employment for
    around 15,000 workers in private energy enterprises and in the state-owned
    Vattenfall group. The agreement fulfils many of the current requirements put
    forward by employers, and the managing director of EFA, Björn Tibell, calls
    it "pioneering".

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In December 1997, the Federal Government agreed on a bill which includes a
    variety of measures to improve the social security provisions for flexible
    working time arrangements and to allow for easier application of the Partial
    Retirement Law (DE9710133F [1]). The new law came into effect on 1 January


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Taking a detailed look at the available data on labour turnover in the UK,
    the independent employment researchers, Industrial Relations Services, argued
    in 1997 that the economic recovery in the UK is leading to increasing numbers
    of resignations and skill shortages, which in turn are leading to substantial
    resourcing problems for employers ("Benchmarking labour turnover: an update",
    Employee Development Bulletin 87, IRS, March 1997). At the same time, labour
    turnover is being adopted by many organisations as a "benchmark" indicator of
    performance and business efficiency. Furthermore, a survey by the
    Confederation of British Industry (reported in "Employers can influence
    labour turnover, say CBI", Employee Development Bulletin 93, IRS, September
    1997) argues that management intervention in employee relations can make a
    large difference to labour turnover rates and improve the performance of the

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Between 20 December 1997 and 4 January 1998, the opinion poll institute,
    Gallup Instituttet conducted a membership survey for the Confederation of
    Danish Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) on members'
    priorities for the trade union movement's work in 1998. The ranking of
    priorities given by the members surveyed was as follows:


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications