According to the recently published /Accident at work avoidance report 1997/
(Unfallverhütungsbericht Arbeit 1997) from the German Federal Government,
the number of accidents at work declined further in 1996, while in the same
period the number of suspected cases of occupational diseases rose.
On 23 January 1998, the High Court in London ruled in nine test cases brought
by ex-mineworkers suing British Coal, the former nationalised coal authority,
for causing them chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The outcome was eagerly
awaited by tens of thousands other potential claimants, and could affect
miners who worked in coalmines as long ago as 1947. Over 100 other cases are
already awaiting judgment and there are thousands of other claims pending,
according to solicitors working on behalf of injured former members of the
National Union of Mineworkers. The test cases, taken by ex-miners from the
Durham, Yorkshire and South Wales coalfields took 17 months to reach the High
The Minister of Labour and Government Administration, Eldbjørg Løwer, in a
press conference on the 23 January 1998, informed the media of her decision
to permit the recruitment of foreign qualified doctors through private labour
exchanges, in addition to the recruitment carried out by the existing public
The social partners in the tourism sector succeeded in signing a national
collective agreement on salaries but not on wages for the 12 months from 1
May 1997 (AT9706120N ). Instead, four wage agreements were concluded at
provincial level (Vienna, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg) by early
July, after which the negotiating process came to a halt. The impasse, in a
sector that is of great importance for Austria's balance of payments, has
begun to concern the Government. On 10 February 1998, the Prime Minister
himself convened the social partners to try to sort out the issues and to
press for a solution.
Over early 1998, the French Minister of Education, Claude Allègre, has been
faced with protests from teachers who are opposed to his proposed reforms.
The teachers' many demands indicate a deep underlying problem, and
negotiations have been limited or even deadlocked.
Spanish employers have supported continuity in electing José María Cuevas
as chair of the CEOE-CEPYME employers' confederation for the fifth time, in
February 1998. In his inaugural speech, he advocated policies including
fiscal reform to reduce employers' social security contributions.
This is the latest in a series of articles examining the industrial relations
systems of the Central and Eastern European countries which are due to start
European Union accession negotiations in 1998 - see EU9708143F ,
EU9709146F  and EU9710152F . Here we focus on Poland, drawing on recent
According to recently-published official figures, 1997 was a year in which
collective bargaining in Portugal did not differ much, in numerical terms,
from previous years. This demonstrates that the bargaining system still
sticks to a certain formal rigidity that is not accompanied by substantive
change. Figures also indicate that although the number of strikes remained
stable, some reduction in other indicators of strike mobilisation - workers
involved and days lost, for example - is noticeable.
In 1957, the German Trade Union Federation (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB)
and its affiliated trade unions set up a joint company pension scheme
(Unterstützungsfonds) for their employees. Traditionally, the scheme was
financed on a pay-as-you-go basis. In the last couple of years, however, the
financing of the pension scheme has become increasingly problematic for a
number of reasons:
At the end of January 1998, the Low Pay Commission  (LPC) completed its
oral hearings on the forthcoming National Minimum Wage (NMW) in sessions with
the Equal Opportunities Commission, Commission for Racial Equality and
UNISON, public sector union which is the UK's largest union. The LPC will now
have to consider more than 400 pieces of written evidence, along with the
results of hearings with companies, employees, trade unions and other bodies.
The LPC's findings are expected to be published later in the spring of 1998,
along with a recommendation for a NMW rate (UK9711177F ).
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the food and drinks sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the food and drinks sector in the EU Member States.
This report offers a backward look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey ‘ Living, working and COVID-19’ which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through four rounds of the survey (two in 2020 and two in 2021), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers. A fifth round of the e-survey is planned for March–May 2022, with initial findings available in July.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.