The firefighters' strike, which had lasted for over three months, ended in
February 1998 after both parties approved a conciliation proposal from the
state conciliator. The strike is generally considered not to have achieved
any special benefits for the strikers.
In 1996, legal action was taken by Denmark's Christian Trade Union (Den
Kristelige Fagforening, DKF) against a company that had dismissed an employee
on grounds of non-compliance with a closed-shop agreement concluded with the
General Workers' Union in Denmark (Dansk Specialarbejderforbund, SiD) in
1990. The closed-shop agreement stated that employees recruited after 1990
should already be or become a member of SiD. Having been employed for a year
at the company when the closed-shop agreement with SiD was reached, the
employee at the centre of the case became a member of SiD. Later, he
regretted the membership and refused to pay union dues, resulting in his
exclusion from the trade union and later his dismissal.
In keeping with the general thrust of Ireland's current three year economic
and social pact,/Partnership 2000/ (IE9702103F ), a joint company/trade
union "partnership forum" was established in January 1998 at the Waterford
(south-east Ireland) contact-lens plant of Bausch & Lomb (B&L), the USA-based
multinational. The company has a sunglasses plant in the same city, but this
operates separately and with a different management structure. Overall, B&L
is set to increase its total number of employees from its current level of
1,100 to over 1,500 within two years. This involves an ongoing IEP 43 million
investment programme and will make B&L the largest employer in the region,
thus surpassing the world-famous Waterford Crystal where 1,400 are employed.
In early 1998, farm owners, cooperatives and trade unions in the Spanish
olive-growing sector are preparing new protests in opposition to the reform
of the Common Market Organisation for olive oil laid down in a draft proposal
by the EU Commissioner responsible for agriculture. The sector believes that
the proposed changes would have negative effects on employment. However, the
sector's demands no longer have the unanimous backing of the Government and
the political parties.
On 16 February 1998, the president of the Public Services, Transport and
Traffic Union (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr,
ÖTV), Herbert Mai, stated in an interview that in the long run there is no
alternative to an extensive reduction of working time in order to solve the
unemployment problem. For Mr Mai, the introduction of the 30-hour week could
be an important step towards halving unemployment in Germany. In the public
services sector alone, a weekly reduction of one hour in working time would
have an "arithmetical employment effect", producing 135,000 new jobs. At the
moment, weekly working time in public services is 38.5 hours in western
Germany and 40 hours in eastern Germany.
The third conference of female trade unionists in the Greek General
Confederation of Labour (GSEE), held in February 1998, has highlighted the
serious lack of representation and participation of women in trade union
bodies in Greece.
The issue of legislating against discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin
in working life has been debated in Sweden for the last 30 years, but it was
not until 1994 that the first law was enacted. To the very last, even one of
the trade union confederations asserted that collective agreements, not
legislation, were the appropriate means of combating discrimination.
At the February 1998 plenary session of the European Parliament, the
representative of the current UK Council Presidency, Douglas Henderson
confirmed that the Council of Ministers and the European Commission had no
plans to review the decision to end intra-EU duty-free sales (EU9711166N
). This was despite claims made by representatives of the ferry and
airport industry and trade unions in these sectors that the loss of up to
140,000 jobs may result from the decision. The decision to end duty-free from
1999 was taken over seven years ago by the Council of Ministers in 1991, as
one of the taxation and excise measures to make the single market a reality.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
In 2022, the European Semester was streamlined to integrate the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) established on 19 February 2021 (Regulation (EU) 2021/241). While facing the geopolitical and economic challenges triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Member States have been implementing the national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) for more than one year and around 100 billion euro in RRF funds have already been disbursed.
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.
Eurofound's annual review of minimum wages reports on the development of statutory and collectively agreed minimum wages across the EU and the processes through which they were set. The focus of this year’s report is on the impact of high inflation on the setting of minimum wage rates. In addition, new figures on the net value of minimum wages are presented, along with the latest policy-relevant research in the EU Member States and Norway.