At the end of January 1998, the Low Pay Commission  (LPC) completed its
oral hearings on the forthcoming National Minimum Wage (NMW) in sessions with
the Equal Opportunities Commission, Commission for Racial Equality and
UNISON, public sector union which is the UK's largest union. The LPC will now
have to consider more than 400 pieces of written evidence, along with the
results of hearings with companies, employees, trade unions and other bodies.
The LPC's findings are expected to be published later in the spring of 1998,
along with a recommendation for a NMW rate (UK9711177F ).
In 1957, the German Trade Union Federation (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB)
and its affiliated trade unions set up a joint company pension scheme
(Unterstützungsfonds) for their employees. Traditionally, the scheme was
financed on a pay-as-you-go basis. In the last couple of years, however, the
financing of the pension scheme has become increasingly problematic for a
number of reasons:
Spanish employers have supported continuity in electing José María Cuevas
as chair of the CEOE-CEPYME employers' confederation for the fifth time, in
February 1998. In his inaugural speech, he advocated policies including
fiscal reform to reduce employers' social security contributions.
According to recently-published official figures, 1997 was a year in which
collective bargaining in Portugal did not differ much, in numerical terms,
from previous years. This demonstrates that the bargaining system still
sticks to a certain formal rigidity that is not accompanied by substantive
change. Figures also indicate that although the number of strikes remained
stable, some reduction in other indicators of strike mobilisation - workers
involved and days lost, for example - is noticeable.
This is the latest in a series of articles examining the industrial relations
systems of the Central and Eastern European countries which are due to start
European Union accession negotiations in 1998 - see EU9708143F ,
EU9709146F  and EU9710152F . Here we focus on Poland, drawing on recent
Following the recent demonstrations by unemployed groups, the French Prime
Minister, Lionel Jospin, announced in February 1998 the main measures that
the Government will be implementing to assist those most affected by
The revised Basic Agreement between Norway's LO trade union confederation and
NHO employers' organisation was approved in February 1998. The attempt to
extend the agreement's new provisions on the minimum level of members
required for a union to enter into a collective agreement to other basic
agreements, has led to complications in the negotiations between NHO and the
YS vocational union confederation.
On 11 June 1997 Parliament instructed the Ministry of Labour, Health and
Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales,
BMAGS) to devise, by the end of the year, amendments to the Works
Constitution Act (Arbeitsverfassungsgesetz, ArbVG) that would remove
citizenship as a criterion for eligibility in works council elections. A
similar amendment was demanded for the Chamber of Labour Act
(Arbeiterkammergesetz, AKG) (AT9706121N ). One week late, on 8 January
1998, the Ministry circulated draft amendments to the AKG for review by the
social partners, other ministries, and provincial governments. In the
covering letter, the Ministry asked for comments not only on the Chamber of
Labour Act but also on similar proposed changes to the ArbVG. The review
period ended on 9 February 1998 but some organisations were still working on
their response by the end of the month, one of them being the Austrian Trade
Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB).
This working paper consists of examples of good practice in combating age barriers in employment in a variety of European countries. Its primary intention is to inform the debate in Europe about age and employment by providing practical examples of how 'different' private and public organisations have set about trying to minimise the impact of age barriers in job recruitment and training.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.