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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    An unusual collective agreement has been concluded between the Swedish Energy
    Employers' Association (Energiföretagens Arbetsgivareförening, EFA) on the
    one hand, and the Association of Graduate Engineers
    (Civilingenjörsförbundet, CF), the Swedish Union for Technical and Clerical
    Employees in Industry and Services (Svenska Industritjänstemannaförbundet
    SIF), the Association of Management and Professional Staff (Ledarna) and the
    Union of Service and Communication (SEKO) on the other. The agreement, which
    came into force on 1 January 1998, regulates general terms of employment for
    around 15,000 workers in private energy enterprises and in the state-owned
    Vattenfall group. The agreement fulfils many of the current requirements put
    forward by employers, and the managing director of EFA, Björn Tibell, calls
    it "pioneering".

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In January 1998, the European Commission launched a "high-level expert group"
    to analyse industrial change in the European Union. The group was formed in
    response to one of the European Council's conclusions [1] at the Employment
    Summit [2] held in Luxembourg in November 1997 (EU9711168F [3]). The European
    Council considered that "particular attention should be given to sectors
    undergoing major industrial change". More specifically, it called for the
    setting up of a high-level expert group to analyse likely industrial changes
    in the Community and to look into ways of anticipating them better, so as to
    ensure a positive and coordinated approach to their economic and social


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Taking a detailed look at the available data on labour turnover in the UK,
    the independent employment researchers, Industrial Relations Services, argued
    in 1997 that the economic recovery in the UK is leading to increasing numbers
    of resignations and skill shortages, which in turn are leading to substantial
    resourcing problems for employers ("Benchmarking labour turnover: an update",
    Employee Development Bulletin 87, IRS, March 1997). At the same time, labour
    turnover is being adopted by many organisations as a "benchmark" indicator of
    performance and business efficiency. Furthermore, a survey by the
    Confederation of British Industry (reported in "Employers can influence
    labour turnover, say CBI", Employee Development Bulletin 93, IRS, September
    1997) argues that management intervention in employee relations can make a
    large difference to labour turnover rates and improve the performance of the

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In December 1997, the Federal Government agreed on a bill which includes a
    variety of measures to improve the social security provisions for flexible
    working time arrangements and to allow for easier application of the Partial
    Retirement Law (DE9710133F [1]). The new law came into effect on 1 January


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Between 20 December 1997 and 4 January 1998, the opinion poll institute,
    Gallup Instituttet conducted a membership survey for the Confederation of
    Danish Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) on members'
    priorities for the trade union movement's work in 1998. The ranking of
    priorities given by the members surveyed was as follows:

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In an interview on national Norwegian television in January 1998, the
    Minister of Labour and Government Administration, Eldbjørg Løwer, called
    for the lifting of the ban on private employment agencies (reported in
    /Aftenposten/ on 9 January 1998). Speaking in general terms about the
    contemporary labour market situation in Norway, she recognised the need to
    modernise the present system of regulations on private employment agencies as
    well as on the temporary secondment of employees from one firm to another
    (NO9708118F [1]). Ms Løwer envisages a reversal of the present legal
    arrangements in both areas. The prohibitions on private employment agencies
    and on the temporary secondment of employees from one company to another
    should be abolished, while alternative restrictions may be put on certain
    types of occupational groups, and on the quota of workers on "lease" in any
    given firm or company.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A perceived dearth of openings for apprentices, in the context of the
    demographic trends leading to increasing numbers of 15-year-olds, was one of
    the major employment issues in 1997 (AT9708128F [1]). Alerted, the Government
    and the social partners intend not to be caught unawares in 1998.
    Preparations are already underway to have the right incentives and sufficient
    counseling capacity in place when school finishes at the end of June. For the
    time being, however, the preparations are hampered by competing and
    conflicting evaluations of the measures taken in 1997 (AT9706116F [2]), and
    by disagreement over the scale the problem is likely to assume in 1998. They
    are also hampered by the fact that the cost of the 1997 measures is not


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    At present, Sweden has no legislation expressly forbidding discrimination
    against people with disabilities in working life. For example, there is
    nothing preventing private employers from excluding job applicants with some
    form of disability with express reference to their disability, as they are in
    principle free to employ whomever they choose. On 3 December 1997 a committee
    appointed by the Government therefore proposed a new act prohibiting
    discrimination in working life against people with disabilities.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The political debate on employment policies in Belgium grew bitter just
    before the Christmas break at the end of 1997. Recommendations on government
    policies made by the new Higher Council for Employment provoked the anger of
    the leaders of the two main trade union organisations and some critical
    declarations from the chief executive of the employers' federation.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications