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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 15 December 1997, the employers' association for newspaper publishers,
    Bundesverband Deutscher Zeitungsverleger (BDZV) and the two trade unions
    which organise journalists, IG Medien and Deutscher Journalisten-Verband
    (DJV), signed new collective agreements for the 17,000 or so journalists on
    daily newspapers. The negotiations, lasting more than three months, were
    overshadowed by strong demands for further cost reductions by the employers
    on the one hand, and accompanied by several union protest actions and warning
    strikes (Warnstreiks) on the other hand. Finally, the collective bargaining
    parties agreed on the following provisions:

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Luxembourg has continued to experience a period of economic growth. The
    public debt accounted for 6.7% of GDP in 1997, and projections for 1998 are
    in the order of 7.7%. Eurostat calculates a public spending surplus of 1.7%
    in 1997 and the state budget for 1998 is virtually balanced. The population
    is 418,300 (of whom 142,800 are foreigners), while total employment stood at
    224,000 at the end of 1997, of whom 63,200 are cross-border workers.
    Unemployment is rising slowly and stood at 3.6% at the end of 1997. The rate
    of inflation was 1.4% in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    A confidential interim report into industrial and employee relations in An
    Post, Ireland's state-owned postal company, highlights the adversarial nature
    of its industrial relations structures and practices and how these are
    inhibiting the development of a more customer focused business. The report,
    which was submitted to the company's chair, Stephen O'Connor, in February
    1997 was carried out by a subsidiary of the Irish Business and Employers
    Confederation (IBEC) - Employee Relations Services (ERS). It was featured in
    the industrial relations weekly, /Industrial Relations News/, in December
    1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Meeting in Brussels on 15 December 1997, the Council of Labour and Social
    Affairs Ministers unanimously adopted a Directive to implement the framework
    agreement on part-time work [1] concluded by the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Centre of
    Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic
    Interest (CEEP) and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on 6 June
    1997 (EU9706131F [2]). This agreement aims to institute the principle of
    non-discrimination for part-time workers and to facilitate the development of
    part-time work on a voluntary basis and to contribute to the flexible
    organisation of working time in a manner which takes into account the needs
    of employers and workers. It also seeks to ensure that the equal treatment of
    part-time workers in terms of pay (pro rata) and working conditions is
    applied, unless there are "objective reasons" for differential treatment.
    Clause 5 of the agreement calls upon Member States to review any obstacles
    which may limited opportunities for part-time work and, where appropriate, to
    eliminate them.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-dial/social/parttime_en.htm
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-reach-framework-agreement-on-part-time-work

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The leaders of the Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions (LO) and the
    Federation of Norwegian Professional Associations (AF), Yngve Hågensen (LO)
    and Magne Songvoll (AF), made headlines on 1 December 1997 when they called
    for their members to boycott Norway's largest commercial bank, Den Norske
    Bank (DnB). This followed DnB's decision to introduce new service charges and
    to raise existing service charges from 1 November 1997. This is only the
    latest of many clashes between the trade unions and the banking sector in
    Norway on the issue of service charges. An opinion poll commissioned by LO
    and AF revealed that a majority of the people asked expressed dissatisfaction
    with existing service charges in the banking sector in general. The proposed
    boycott was not directed at the DnB alone, but the bank was made the main
    target due to its size and the scale of its service fees. DnB later
    reconsidered its original decision, and decided to lower charges on some
    services.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Dismissed trade union delegates and the management of Boston Scientific, a
    medical equipment company which relocated operations from Belgium to Ireland
    in 1997, are still fighting it out in the Belgian courts at the end of the
    year. This legal battle is part of a union strategy to fight closures and
    relocations carried out by multinationals.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The introduction of a statutory National Minimum Wage (NMW) was one of the
    commitments of the Labour Government that came to power in May 1997
    (UK9704125F [1]), and the National Minimum Wage Bill was published on 27
    November and received its first reading in Parliament. Margaret Beckett, the
    President of the Board of Trade, who is responsible for the bill, said that
    it would set the framework within which the Government would introduce the
    NMW, once it had carefully considered the recommendations of the Low Pay
    Commission [2] (LPC). The bill, she stated, will enable the Government to
    introduce a NMW which is as simple and universal as possible (UK9711177F
    [3]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market/the-industrial-relations-consequences-of-the-new-labour-government
    [2] http://www.dti.gov.uk/lowpay/
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-social-policies/the-national-minimum-wage-an-update

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    According to the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt), German
    real GDP grew at a rate of 2.2% in 1997. As regards the Maastricht
    convergence criteria, the budget deficit reached 2.7% of GDP, whereas public
    debt amounted to 61.3% of GDP. On average, unemployment stood at 11.4% of the
    civilian labour force - 9.8% in the west and 18.1% in the east. Inflation, as
    measured by the consumer price index, amounted to 1.8%.

Series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications