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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In the past decade, Ireland has developed a system of social participation
    which plays a major role in the conduct of economic and social policy. This
    approach began in 1987, with a three-year agreement [1] between the
    Government, the trade union movement, employers and agricultural interests.
    This lifted the country from the deep economic and social crisis of the 1980s
    and facilitated a return to growth. That agreement was followed by three
    further social partnership programmes, the latest of which is /Partnership
    2000/ (IE9702103F [2]). These agreements determine the growth of pay in both
    the public and private sector, but also embody a negotiated approach to a
    wide range of economic and social policies. The consensus which underpinned
    these agreements was, to a large extent, developed in the National Economic
    and Social Council (NESC), a deliberative body in which the social partners
    and senior civil servants undertake analysis and discussion of strategic
    issues. Following agreement on the strategic priorities, negotiation of the
    programmes was undertaken in a separate body, the Central Review Committee,
    which also monitors the implementation of the programmes.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations which signed the
    important labour market reform agreements in April 1997 (the "April
    agreements") have carried out a review of their results over the first six
    months, which was published in January 1998. The social partners agree in
    general that the results are positive, but have reservations on some points.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Luxembourg's two public transport trade unions called a 48-hour strike in
    January 1998 in protest against the Government's intention to reduce their
    members' pensions.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In 1992, the Municipal Workers' Union (Kommunalarbetareförbundet) and the
    Swedish Association of Local Authorities (Kommunförbundet) agreed to change
    the collective agreement on pensions then in force, with the effect that the
    pensioners did not receive the benefits they had counted on (SE9709136F [1]).
    A former sheet-metal worker, Knut Törling, sued his former employer, the
    City of Stockholm, claiming in all SEK 7,794, plus interest on overdue
    payment. Mr Törling argued that pension rights are the workers' acquired
    rights which a trade union cannot dispose of without a special authorisation
    from each member concerned, and he had never given such an authorisation to
    the Municipal Workers' Union. Therefore the City of Stockholm could not
    invoke the new collective agreement against him.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A collective agreement on working time was concluded in the construction
    industry on 9 August 1996. Although it became effective retroactively from 1
    July 1996, its first impact was felt only in 1997. The main aim was to reduce
    the industry's reliance on the national unemployment insurance system though
    workers being laid off during the winter, and to distribute the cost of doing
    so between enterprises and employees. It is now possible to make a first
    assessment of the deal's effects.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A report on the service offered by the Greek public administration, released
    in January 1998, contains proposals aimed at achieving greater efficiency,
    greater responsibility amongst public servants, better management of the
    workforce and a better response to citizens' needs.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Recent statistics from Danmarks Statistik, the official statistical office,
    show that unskilled male workers' share of total employment in Denmark has
    remained unchanged at 18% over the period from 1980 to 1996. Overall, the
    share of all unskilled workers dropped from 23% in 1980 to 20% in 1996. The
    largest change has occurred for unskilled female workers, whose share dropped
    from 26% in 1980 to 21% in 1996. Out of a workforce of 2.8 million,
    approximately one million workers are categorised as "unskilled" or
    "lower-skilled" in Denmark.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A "High-Level Group" has advocated the continuation of the non-legalistic,
    "voluntarist" approach to industrial relations in Ireland, in a set of
    proposals aimed at tackling disputes over trade union recognition [1] rights
    for workers. The High-Level group, drawn from representatives of Government,
    state agencies, employer and trade union interests, was established in
    accordance with the current /Partnership 2000/ agreement between the social
    partners, which runs from January 1997 to March 2000 (IE9702103F [2]).


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The adjustment of Spain's national minimum wage in line with the projected
    rate of inflation for 1998 is considered insufficient by the trade unions. A
    dispute has arisen owing to the loss of the minimum wage's purchasing power,
    repeated failures to increase it and its wide differential with the average
    national wage, at a time when the Spanish economy is progressing favourably.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A report published by the Statistical Office of the European Communities
    (Eurostat) on 9 December 1997 shows that, despite the adoption of equal pay
    legislation at European level more than 20 years ago, a large pay gap remains
    between men and women. The report (, Eurostat statistics in focus, Population
    and social conditions, 15/97 [1]), summarises the findings of a survey on pay
    in four Member States and gives the hourly earnings of women as a percentage
    of those of men as 84% in Sweden, 73% in France and Spain and just over 64%
    in the UK. The study includes data on both full- and part-time workers, but
    excludes overtime payments (which means that in certain occupations, pay gaps
    are likely to be underestimated as women are less likely than men to work



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications