Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Against the background of increasing mass unemployment, and following
    legislation in 1996, partial retirement (Altersteilzeit) has become a very
    prominent bargaining issue between the German social partners (DE9708224F
    [1]). According to a recent study by the Institute for Economics and Social
    Science (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) there are
    now 15 branch-level collective agreements and several company agreements on
    partial retirement covering altogether about 5 million employees.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A survey of 374 organisations by the recruitment company, Reed Personnel,
    conducted prior to Christmas 1997, showed that the number of companies
    opening on Christmas Day has grown by a third over the past decade.
    Traditionally only organisations such as hospitals, the emergency services,
    hotels, telephone operator services and the media worked on Christmas Day,
    but this has now extended to the service sector in general and even to some
    manufacturing establishments. The service sector showed the largest increase
    in the proportion of establishments opening, up from 6% to 8% over the
    decade, while manufacturing rose from zero to 1%.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    1997 was a year with few industrial conflicts in Norway, according to
    recently published statistics. The six-week strike on mobile oil
    installations in the North Sea during the autumn was the only major labour
    dispute during 1997.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    At the 1995 congress of the Austrian Trade Union Federation
    (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) its member trade unions decided
    to reorganise. The goal is to reduce the number of individual trade unions
    from 14 to three, covering manufacturing, services, and public service. There
    is no clear time-limit for the process. In the first two years little was
    achieved by way of obvious results, but 1998 promises to bring the first of
    these. On 21 January 1998 two trade unions, the Union of Printing and Paper
    Workers (Gewerkschaft Druck und Papier) and the Union of Posts and
    Telecommunications Employees (Gewerkschaft der Post- und
    Fernmeldebediensteten) concluded a cooperation agreement. They are forming a
    jointly and proportionately financed platform to decide policy measures and a
    joint steering committee with proportional representation. The rationale is
    the unions' shared activity in the media sector. By 2000, they want to unite
    their offices in one location. A full merger in the future is not ruled out,
    neither is it explicitly planned. According to press reports, the ÖGB's
    president commented that a merger might have been the result if the ÖGB
    could have taken decisions like a joint stock company.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Following demonstrations and work stoppages in December 1997, employers and
    trade unions in Belgium's not-for-profit sector have submitted a joint
    declaration to the Government calling for increased financing for employment.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A January 1998 ruling by the Commercial Court in Paris has enabled some of
    the former workers of a Bally shoe factory to take it over and restart

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    An agreement signed in Pistoia, Italy in December 1997 by metalworkers' trade
    unions and the Europa Metalli company has created 20 new jobs, manufacturing
    the metal to be used in the new Euro coins.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The UK Labour Government is committed by its election manifesto to obliging
    employers to recognise a trade union where this is supported in a ballot by
    employees (UK9704125F [1]). Details of how the Government intends to
    implement this proposal are expected in a White Paper on "fairness at work"
    to be issued in early 1998, and legislation is planned for the 1998-9
    parliamentary session. As part of the policy-making process, government
    ministers have encouraged the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and the
    Trades Union Congress (TUC) to engage in talks to resolve some of the
    practical problems raised by recognition legislation, making it clear that an
    agreed approach is likely to prove persuasive. The Government also indicated
    that if the two sides failed to agree it would proceed to issue its own
    proposals. Discussions between the CBI and TUC took place during the autumn
    of 1997 and concluded in early December with the publication of a joint
    statement identifying not only issues on which the parties could agree but
    also significant areas of continuing disagreement.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The Federation of Transport Workers' Unions in the European Union (FST) and
    theEuropean Community Shipowners' Association (ECSA) agreed a joint text on
    working time and time off aboard ship in December 1997. The approximately
    128,000 EU nationals and 26,000 non-EU nationals employed in the maritime
    sector are among the workers excluded from the provisions of the EU Directive
    (93/104/EC) on certain aspects of the organisation of working time.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In 1997 the average number of unemployed people in Germany was around 4.4
    million, which marked a sharp increase of more than 400,000 on the previous
    year. The average rate of unemployment was 11.4% in 1997, compared with 10.4%
    in 1996. Although the German economy is expected to recover in 1998, most
    economic experts in Germany think that this will have only small effects on
    the labour market.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications