According to the latest figures, over the first three quarters of 1997, GDP
grew by 2.2%, while the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
(Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, INSEE), puts
overall economic growth for the year at 2.5%. The public sector deficit stood
at 3% of GDP. Inflation was brought under control - 1.1% in 1997, down from
1.7% in 1996. The employment situation was varied. At the end of December
1997, unemployment stood at 3,027,800, representing a slight 1.7% improvement
on figures for the same period in 1996. These overall figures conceal quite
different rates of unemployment among men and women and various age groups:
unemployment among the young has decreased by 9% over the year; the
percentage of women in employment continues to increase but at a slower pace;
whereas the percentage of men in employment is continuing to fall, reflecting
the decline in sectors dominated by male employment. However, the majority of
women are employed on "non-traditional" contracts such as fixed-term or
part-time ones - almost 40% of women are recruited on fixed-term contracts.
There has also been a 1.2% increase in the number of long-term unemployed
people. At the end of December 1997, they accounted for 36.8% of overall
The economic situation in Belgium was favourable in 1997, with growth rates
reaching 2.1%. This was largely achieved through export growth, as domestic
consumption remained weak. Inflation stood at 1.9%. According to the
Institute for the National Accounts (Institut des Comptes Nationaux/Instituut
voor de Nationale Rekeningen, ICN/INR), the 1997 budget deficit was 2.1 % of
GDP. The improved economic prospects, and the 1998 budget measures seem set
to reduce the deficit even further. The National Employment Office 
(Office nationale de l'Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEm/RVA)
reported the unemployment rate for 1997 at 13.3% for the total labour force
(10.3% for men and 17.2% for women).
European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
further industrial action in this area.
Worker representatives at Transmediterranea - the principal Spanish shipping
line - called an indefinite strike as from 5 December 1997 to protest against
redundancies and the announcement that six cargo ships will be sold.
Disagreements over the interpretation of key terms relating to the regulation
of working time have delayed the tripartite consultation process for the
transposition of the 1993 EC Directive on certain aspects of the organisation
of working time into Portuguese law. The Directive has still not been
transposed at the end of 1997.
In December 1996, a committee consisting of experts from Greek trade unions
and employers' organisations was set up to discuss the effects of reducing
working time to 35 hours a week. However, on completion of its task in
October 1997, it had become clear that the differences between the two sides
were irreconcilable. We examine the main points of disagreement between the
Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the employers.
In 1997, Italy's GDP increased by 1.7%: although low, this rate of growth was
higher than in 1996. The rate of inflation continued to decrease, falling to
to 1.7% in 1997 (according to the National Institute of Statistics, Istat).
The unemployment rate stood at an average of 12.3% (Istat), which represented
a growth of 0.2 percentage points compared with 1996. However, the
unemployment rate is very different depending on the area: it is particularly
high in the South, where it reaches 22.2%, while it is lower in the Centre
(10.2%) and in the North (7.3% in the North-West and 5.7% in the North-East).
In 1997, the Government's deficit-reduction policies, which received a
particular impetus after 1993, continued, and the public deficit stood at
2.7% of GDP in 1997.
Recent research in the Netherlands shows that setting a legal standard for
the manual lifting of loads would lead to considerable improvements in
working conditions for a large group of employees. However, employers'
organisations and unions are divided on this subject.
Both the trade unions and the employers' organisations have reacted to the
Spanish Government's position at the special EU Employment Summit held in
Luxembourg in November 1997. The former have expressed their profound
dissatisfaction, while the latter support the attitude of the Government, but
would like to see more measures that would allow companies to generate
employment. The reaction of the opposition parties and public opinion in
general was also very critical.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
As part of an annual series on minimum wages, this report summarises the key developments during 2020 and early 2021 with an emphasis on social partners’ roles and views. It looks at how minimum wages were set in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and how minimum wages act as a reference for income support measures. Information from interviews with decision-makers on the process of setting the minimum wage in 2020, along with their assessment of impacts of the proposed EU Directive on adequate minimum wages is also included.
While the EU is considered to be a global leader in gender equality, it is not yet a reality for millions of Europeans given the different dynamics in the Member States. The EU Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025 acknowledges the slow speed of progress and outlines key actions to promote gender equality. Have all countries improved their performance? Which countries have been able to dramatically reduce gender inequality? Which countries lag behind?
The European Green Deal features high on Member State agendas. However, there are concerns that the necessary changes to climate policy may have undesirable socioeconomic consequences, such as regressive distributional effects and increased inequality. This report attempts to identify those policies where there is a significant risk involved and aims to provide guidance on how negative distributional risk can be mitigated.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this policy brief examines the characteristics of innovative companies and explores the types of workplace practices that are significantly associated with establishments' likelihood of introducing innovation. It also investigates differences between workplace practices of innovative and non-innovative companies. Additionally, data gathered through case studies analyse the role of workplace practices in different phases of the innovation process.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
Prior to the COVID-19 crisis, a high demand for labour and low unemployment levels made labour shortages one of the key policy concerns in the EU. Even where there is persistent and rising unemployment, individual countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages, which in some instances have been accentuated by COVID-19. This report explores various approaches to measuring labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.
The issue of regional convergence and whether disadvantaged regions are catching up with wealthier regions continues to attract enormous attention in the policy debate. This report presents the findings of an investigation into the evolution of social imbalances across EU regions over time, based on indicators including unemployment, social exclusion and poverty. It also examines various aspects of the relationship between growth, regional disparities and interpersonal inequalities.
Digital technologies have made it possible for many workers to carry out their work anytime and anywhere, with consequent advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages, for remote workers and teleworkers in particular, include the risk to health and well-being linked to long working hours. To address this issue, there have been calls for the ‘right to disconnect’. This report includes case studies that chart the implementation and impact of the right to disconnect at workplace level.
This study presents policy-relevant findings on differential pay rates for men and women at occupational level. Previous research has underlined that the gender pay gap is biggest – and has been slowest to narrow – in well-paid jobs requiring professional qualifications. These are also jobs in which the female worker share is increasing relatively fast. The report maps the extent of the gender pay gap across the job-wage distribution, taking into account the shifting gender composition of specific sectors, occupations and jobs.