Labour flexibility has returned to the agenda in Italy after the Cgil, Cisl
and Uil trade union confederations reached agreement in December 1997 on
"guidelines to follow in negotiations between the social partners to support
the growth of investment and job creation in the Mezzogiorno". The agreement
has provided the opportunity for discussion of some of the issues that will
be addressed in forthcoming talks on both the 35-hour working week and the
revision of the central agreement of July 1993.
December 1997 and January 1998 have seen industrial action in public
transport and refuse collection, called by the Dutch civil service trade
union, AbvaKabo, in support of wage claims by workers recruited on several
job-creation schemes. Amsterdam city council will meet the demands, while the
city of Leiden has also taken a positive stance.
Since Denmark's industry sector concluded a three-year collective agreement
in 1995, while the rest of the private sector bargaining units concluded
two-year agreements which were renewed in 1997 by one-year agreements
(DK9705110F ), industry is faced with two main issues in the 1998
bargaining round, which began in January. On the one hand, the industry
bargaining parties - the Confederation of Danish Industries (Dansk Industri,
DI) and the Central Organisation of Industrial Employees in Denmark
(Centralorganisationen af Industriansatte i Danmark, CO-industri) - will have
to catch up with the results achieved in the other bargaining units
(transport, building and construction, hotel and restaurants, and services)
in 1995 and 1997. On the other hand, the parties will aim to set a norm by
finalising their bargaining prior to these other areas, whose collective
agreements also expire on 1 March 1998.
According to a report on collective bargaining in Spain in 1997, conducted by
the CEOE employers' confederation, changes have taken place in pay structure,
involving an increase in the number of productivity bonuses and a reduction
in the incidence of length-of-service payments. Clauses transforming
temporary into secure jobs have had little effect despite the April 1997
intersectoral agreement for secure employment.
On 20 October 1997 wage and salary collective agreements for industrial
enterprises in the metalworking sector were concluded, which became effective
from 1 November 1997 (AT9710138N ). They were negotiated by the Industry
Federal Section of the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer
Österreich, WKÖ), the Union of Metals, Mining and Energy Workers
(Gewerkschaft Metall Bergbau Energie, GMBE) and the Industry Section of the
Union of Salaried Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA).
The first collective agreement in each bargaining round in Sweden usually
sets the standard for others that follow. It is significant that the first
agreement in the 1998 bargaining round has occurred in an export industry -
the paper and pulp sector.
The Association of Finnish Lawyers has rejected the new national incomes
policy agreement, which was approved by AKAVA, the confederation to which it
belongs, on 12 December 1997. The Association believes that pay for state
lawyers is well below that for equal work in the private sector
A December 1997 ruling by the European Court of Justice has declared that the
Italian state's monopoly of job placement services is contrary to the
principles of free competition, and is therefore illegitimate. The judgment
comes at a time when the job placement system is being reformed in Italy, and
is therefore likely to accelerate the move towards the greater liberalisation
of labour market mediation in the country.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Between 2021 and 2023 Eurofound is carrying out a pilot project on minimum wage on behalf of the European Commission. The question of how minimum wages and other forms of pay can be fixed for the self-employed is investigated as a part of this project through mapping national and sectoral approaches. Out of concern for the challenging conditions that the self-employed face, some Member States have established or are discussing establishing statutory forms of minimum pay for certain categories of self-employed.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.