In November 1997, La Caixa - a prominent Spanish savings bank - signed an
agreement with the trade unions to promote the creation of permanent jobs.
This agreement is a model that will be followed in five other banks with
which the CC.OO trade union is negotiating similar terms.
In late 1997, the CGTP trade union confederation has amplified its criticisms
of Portugal's system of tripartite social concertation, pointing out
anomalies, claiming that it is manipulated, and raising the issue of the
social partners' representativeness.
In November 1997, organisations representing Greece's hotel sector employers
submitted their views on the country's new tripartite "Confidence Pact". The
employers' calls for greater flexibility have met with opposition from trade
In 1997, GDP growth stood at 3.9%, or 3.5% for mainland Norway (offshore
sector excluded). The consumer prices index rose by 2.5%, compared with 1.3%
in 1996. The 1997 unemployment rate was 4.2%, against 4.9% for 1996. In 1997,
Norway had a central government surplus of NOK 65.8 billion (ECU 8.2
billion). However, if revenues from the petroleum sector are excluded, Norway
had a public budget deficit of NOK 20.2 billion (ECU 2.5 billion). The
surplus will be transferred to the Government Petroleum Fund.
On 16 December 1997 about 20,000 employees in the "social" or not-for-profit
sector - also known as the "white sector" - protested in the streets of
Brussels. They came from a wide variety of subsectors, including home care,
care for the elderly, residential youth work, sheltered accommodation,
hospitals and so on (BE9712127N ), but they all united behind the slogan:
"The elastic band is stretched too far."
The economic situation in Belgium was favourable in 1997, with growth rates
reaching 2.1%. This was largely achieved through export growth, as domestic
consumption remained weak. Inflation stood at 1.9%. According to the
Institute for the National Accounts (Institut des Comptes Nationaux/Instituut
voor de Nationale Rekeningen, ICN/INR), the 1997 budget deficit was 2.1 % of
GDP. The improved economic prospects, and the 1998 budget measures seem set
to reduce the deficit even further. The National Employment Office 
(Office nationale de l'Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEm/RVA)
reported the unemployment rate for 1997 at 13.3% for the total labour force
(10.3% for men and 17.2% for women).
According to the latest figures, over the first three quarters of 1997, GDP
grew by 2.2%, while the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
(Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, INSEE), puts
overall economic growth for the year at 2.5%. The public sector deficit stood
at 3% of GDP. Inflation was brought under control - 1.1% in 1997, down from
1.7% in 1996. The employment situation was varied. At the end of December
1997, unemployment stood at 3,027,800, representing a slight 1.7% improvement
on figures for the same period in 1996. These overall figures conceal quite
different rates of unemployment among men and women and various age groups:
unemployment among the young has decreased by 9% over the year; the
percentage of women in employment continues to increase but at a slower pace;
whereas the percentage of men in employment is continuing to fall, reflecting
the decline in sectors dominated by male employment. However, the majority of
women are employed on "non-traditional" contracts such as fixed-term or
part-time ones - almost 40% of women are recruited on fixed-term contracts.
There has also been a 1.2% increase in the number of long-term unemployed
people. At the end of December 1997, they accounted for 36.8% of overall
European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
further industrial action in this area.
Worker representatives at Transmediterranea - the principal Spanish shipping
line - called an indefinite strike as from 5 December 1997 to protest against
redundancies and the announcement that six cargo ships will be sold.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This study presents policy-relevant findings on differential pay rates for men and women at occupational level. Previous research has underlined that the gender pay gap is biggest – and has been slowest to narrow – in well-paid jobs requiring professional qualifications. These are also jobs in which the female worker share is increasing relatively fast. The report maps the extent of the gender pay gap across the job-wage distribution, taking into account the shifting gender composition of specific sectors, occupations and jobs.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically reshaped workplace practices and work organisation across the EU. This report explores changes that occurred as a result of or during the COVID-19 pandemic in areas such as technological transformation, decision-making and remote working. The research sets out to learn from company experiences and measures that have proved critical to keeping businesses running. It aims to inform policymakers, employers and trade unions on how to make businesses, workplaces and workers more resilient in the face of a crisis such as COVID-19.