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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 16 December 1997 about 20,000 employees in the "social" or not-for-profit
    sector - also known as the "white sector" - protested in the streets of
    Brussels. They came from a wide variety of subsectors, including home care,
    care for the elderly, residential youth work, sheltered accommodation,
    hospitals and so on (BE9712127N [1]), but they all united behind the slogan:
    "The elastic band is stretched too far."

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/unrest-hits-voluntary-and-social-services-sector

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    According to the latest figures, over the first three quarters of 1997, GDP
    grew by 2.2%, while the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
    (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, INSEE), puts
    overall economic growth for the year at 2.5%. The public sector deficit stood
    at 3% of GDP. Inflation was brought under control - 1.1% in 1997, down from
    1.7% in 1996. The employment situation was varied. At the end of December
    1997, unemployment stood at 3,027,800, representing a slight 1.7% improvement
    on figures for the same period in 1996. These overall figures conceal quite
    different rates of unemployment among men and women and various age groups:
    unemployment among the young has decreased by 9% over the year; the
    percentage of women in employment continues to increase but at a slower pace;
    whereas the percentage of men in employment is continuing to fall, reflecting
    the decline in sectors dominated by male employment. However, the majority of
    women are employed on "non-traditional" contracts such as fixed-term or
    part-time ones - almost 40% of women are recruited on fixed-term contracts.
    There has also been a 1.2% increase in the number of long-term unemployed
    people. At the end of December 1997, they accounted for 36.8% of overall
    unemployment.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The economic situation in Belgium was favourable in 1997, with growth rates
    reaching 2.1%. This was largely achieved through export growth, as domestic
    consumption remained weak. Inflation stood at 1.9%. According to the
    Institute for the National Accounts (Institut des Comptes Nationaux/Instituut
    voor de Nationale Rekeningen, ICN/INR), the 1997 budget deficit was 2.1 % of
    GDP. The improved economic prospects, and the 1998 budget measures seem set
    to reduce the deficit even further. The National Employment Office [1]
    (Office nationale de l'Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEm/RVA)
    reported the unemployment rate for 1997 at 13.3% for the total labour force
    (10.3% for men and 17.2% for women).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/national-employment-and-placement-service

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
    competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
    the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
    councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
    Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
    further industrial action in this area.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1997, GDP growth stood at 3.9%, or 3.5% for mainland Norway (offshore
    sector excluded). The consumer prices index rose by 2.5%, compared with 1.3%
    in 1996. The 1997 unemployment rate was 4.2%, against 4.9% for 1996. In 1997,
    Norway had a central government surplus of NOK 65.8 billion (ECU 8.2
    billion). However, if revenues from the petroleum sector are excluded, Norway
    had a public budget deficit of NOK 20.2 billion (ECU 2.5 billion). The
    surplus will be transferred to the Government Petroleum Fund.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Worker representatives at Transmediterranea - the principal Spanish shipping
    line - called an indefinite strike as from 5 December 1997 to protest against
    redundancies and the announcement that six cargo ships will be sold.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Disagreements over the interpretation of key terms relating to the regulation
    of working time have delayed the tripartite consultation process for the
    transposition of the 1993 EC Directive on certain aspects of the organisation
    of working time into Portuguese law. The Directive has still not been
    transposed at the end of 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In December 1996, a committee consisting of experts from Greek trade unions
    and employers' organisations was set up to discuss the effects of reducing
    working time to 35 hours a week. However, on completion of its task in
    October 1997, it had become clear that the differences between the two sides
    were irreconcilable. We examine the main points of disagreement between the
    Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the employers.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1997, Italy's GDP increased by 1.7%: although low, this rate of growth was
    higher than in 1996. The rate of inflation continued to decrease, falling to
    to 1.7% in 1997 (according to the National Institute of Statistics, Istat).
    The unemployment rate stood at an average of 12.3% (Istat), which represented
    a growth of 0.2 percentage points compared with 1996. However, the
    unemployment rate is very different depending on the area: it is particularly
    high in the South, where it reaches 22.2%, while it is lower in the Centre
    (10.2%) and in the North (7.3% in the North-West and 5.7% in the North-East).
    In 1997, the Government's deficit-reduction policies, which received a
    particular impetus after 1993, continued, and the public deficit stood at
    2.7% of GDP in 1997.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications