The economic situation in Belgium was favourable in 1997, with growth rates
reaching 2.1%. This was largely achieved through export growth, as domestic
consumption remained weak. Inflation stood at 1.9%. According to the
Institute for the National Accounts (Institut des Comptes Nationaux/Instituut
voor de Nationale Rekeningen, ICN/INR), the 1997 budget deficit was 2.1 % of
GDP. The improved economic prospects, and the 1998 budget measures seem set
to reduce the deficit even further. The National Employment Office 
(Office nationale de l'Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEm/RVA)
reported the unemployment rate for 1997 at 13.3% for the total labour force
(10.3% for men and 17.2% for women).
European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
further industrial action in this area.
Worker representatives at Transmediterranea - the principal Spanish shipping
line - called an indefinite strike as from 5 December 1997 to protest against
redundancies and the announcement that six cargo ships will be sold.
Disagreements over the interpretation of key terms relating to the regulation
of working time have delayed the tripartite consultation process for the
transposition of the 1993 EC Directive on certain aspects of the organisation
of working time into Portuguese law. The Directive has still not been
transposed at the end of 1997.
In December 1996, a committee consisting of experts from Greek trade unions
and employers' organisations was set up to discuss the effects of reducing
working time to 35 hours a week. However, on completion of its task in
October 1997, it had become clear that the differences between the two sides
were irreconcilable. We examine the main points of disagreement between the
Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the employers.
In 1997, Italy's GDP increased by 1.7%: although low, this rate of growth was
higher than in 1996. The rate of inflation continued to decrease, falling to
to 1.7% in 1997 (according to the National Institute of Statistics, Istat).
The unemployment rate stood at an average of 12.3% (Istat), which represented
a growth of 0.2 percentage points compared with 1996. However, the
unemployment rate is very different depending on the area: it is particularly
high in the South, where it reaches 22.2%, while it is lower in the Centre
(10.2%) and in the North (7.3% in the North-West and 5.7% in the North-East).
In 1997, the Government's deficit-reduction policies, which received a
particular impetus after 1993, continued, and the public deficit stood at
2.7% of GDP in 1997.
Recent research in the Netherlands shows that setting a legal standard for
the manual lifting of loads would lead to considerable improvements in
working conditions for a large group of employees. However, employers'
organisations and unions are divided on this subject.
Collective bargaining may be defined as a collective decision-making process
between parties representing the interests of the employer(s) and the
employee(s), whose purpose is the negotiation and continuous application of a
jointly agreed set of rules to govern the substantive and procedural terms of
the employment relationship.
Both the trade unions and the employers' organisations have reacted to the
Spanish Government's position at the special EU Employment Summit held in
Luxembourg in November 1997. The former have expressed their profound
dissatisfaction, while the latter support the attitude of the Government, but
would like to see more measures that would allow companies to generate
employment. The reaction of the opposition parties and public opinion in
general was also very critical.
Measures to improve the working environment and the health and safety of the
workforce have been the cornerstone of the European social dimension since
the inception of the European Communities. Articles 117 and 118 of the Treaty
of Rome called for the Community to be instrumental in achieving the
improvement of living and working conditions in the Member States. These
provisions were strengthened under Article 118A  of the Single European
Act (which came into force in 1987), and a Directive  on the introduction
of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at
the workplace (89/391/EEC) was subsequently adopted by the Labour and Social
Affairs Council in June 1989. This framework Directive, intended as a
spearhead for other individual Directives, lays down fundamental requirements
for health and safety at work, including the obligations of employers and
workers, the establishment and maintenance of prevention, protection and
emergency services at the workplace, comprehensive information and training
and consultation of workers in all matters relating to health and safety. The
adoption of the framework Directive led to a spate of Community legislation
on health and safety related issues between 1989 and 1992. The individual
Directives fall into three main categories. They aim to:
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.