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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 11 November 1997, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued a judgment in
    case of Hellmut Marschall v Land Nordrhine-Westphalia (C-409/95) [1],
    according to which a national law which guarantees priority for women in
    promotions in the public sector in cases where there are male and female
    candidates who are equally qualified for the post in question does not
    conflict with Community law provided that certain conditions are satisfied.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/jurisp/cgi-bin/form.pl?lang=en&numaff=C-409/95&datefs=&datefe=&nomusuel=&domaine=&mots=&resmax=100&Submit=Submit

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    HK/Industri- the industrial section of the Union of Commercial and Clerical
    Employees in Denmark (Handels- og Kontorfunktionærernes Forbund, HK) - has
    published a comprehensive proposal on a "European collective industrial
    relations system". The aim is to initiate a debate on how European-wide
    industrial relations issues can be resolved. The union proposes the
    conclusion of transnational agreements, with an industrial tribunal to
    adjudicate on matters of dispute. These proposals were presented at a
    conference in Denmark on 28-29 November and at a press conference in Brussels
    on 8 December.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In late 1997, the Committee on Freedom of Association of the International
    Labour Organisation (ILO) issued a report favourable to the pay claims of
    Spanish civil servants.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Work on Sunday is in principle prohibited in Austria. However, the law
    permits exemptions to be made by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs
    for basic necessities or for economic or technological reasons, and by the
    heads of provincial governments for exceptional regional supply purposes. New
    legislation in 1997 also opened the door for the social partners to conclude
    collective agreements permitting Sunday work if this is deemed necessary in
    order to safeguard or create employment (AT9703107N [1]). If the proposed
    Sunday work is to be only temporary and connected with the introduction of
    new technology, an exemption can also be granted by the Central Labour
    Inspectorate (Zentrales Arbeitsinspektorat). Recently, a number of
    enterprises - some industrial, some in retailing, some in other services -
    have made demands for such exemptions. This has, in turn, led to a debate
    among the social partners and the broader public about the use and abuse of
    Sunday work regulations.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/more-flexibility-in-sunday-working

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    A study of transport conditions for workers in the Athens area, carried out
    between July and October 1997 on behalf of a trade union-based research
    institute, reveals that poor commuting conditions are a factor that causes
    both a deterioration in the quality of life and one million lost working
    hours a year.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Meaningful pay negotiations at the Portuguese operations of Rhode, a
    prominent German transnational footwear company, have been delayed, prompting
    strike action in November-December 1997. Management is waiting for the
    conclusion of the sectoral agreement before opening the process of
    bargaining.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Sweden's present act against ethnic discrimination in working life is
    ineffective and should be replaced by a new act as from 1 January 1999. This
    is the conclusion of a committee appointed by the Government to review the
    legislation, which issued its proposals on 1 December 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Finland's central social partner organisations reached a national incomes
    policy agreement for 1998-2000 in early December 1997 (FI9801145F [1]). The
    deal required approval by the member organisations of the signatory
    confederations, and a deadline of 11 December was set for the completion of
    this ratification process. The settlement was threatened by the failure of
    the Paperworkers' Union (Paperiliitto) - which is considered a key union in
    the incomes policy deal - to meet the deadline, as it sought the resolution
    of outstanding sectoral issues. However, a truce was later achieved in the
    paper industry, with the union prevailing on employers to maintain the
    current position on "outsourcing", allowing the ratification of the central
    agreement. The Paperworkers' Union is an affiliate of the SAK confederation.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/second-incomes-policy-agreement-for-employment-is-signed

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The labour and employment parliamentary committee of Luxembourg's Chamber of
    Deputies has been preparing for an orientation debate on employment policy to
    be held in November 1997. It will submit its conclusions in three parts after
    consulting the social partners.

Series

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications