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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    By a majority of four to three, the Danish Supreme Court ruled on 17
    September 1997 that a trade union which already has bargaining rights in the
    public sector should also have bargaining rights in local pay negotiations on
    behalf of those public sector employees who are members of employee
    organisations which have not been granted the right of negotiation.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    On 20 and 21 November 1997, European heads of state and government met in
    Luxembourg for the much anticipated Employment Summit [1]- the first ever
    such European Council meeting dedicated to the issue of how to address the
    problem of persistent unemployment in the European Union. The main decisions
    reached by the summit were as follows:


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The Government and the social partners have agreed to make exceptions from
    Austria's ban on women's night work, with the result that from 1 January 1998
    collective agreements may permit women to be employed between 22.00 and
    06.00. The deal still needs to be ratified by Parliament.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Both state social security and occupational social security schemes in Sweden
    are based on the assumption that adults of both sexes earn their own living.
    Therefore every worker has his or her own rights, irrespective of civil
    status or family situation. Formally, the regulations make no distinction
    between men and women. It is nevertheless a fact that women on average have
    less money at their disposal when they are ill, when they become pensioners
    etc. One apparent explanation is that that their earnings, to which their
    benefits are related, are lower than men's average earnings. Their lifetime
    incomes also tend to be smaller than men's, as more women work part-time at
    least during some periods of their life.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The effects of a lorry drivers strike in November 1997 extended beyond
    France. The dispute quickly took on a European dimension, provoking reaction
    from many countries and warnings from the European Commission. Over and above
    the purely national causes, and in particular poor industrial relations, the
    strike has raised many questions about free competition within the European

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The process of mergers in the Finnish paper industry, which has continued
    throughout the 1990s, has led to a situation where there are only three large
    groups of paper companies left - ENSO, Metsä-Serla and UPM-Kymmene. In a
    speech on 1 November 1997, Jarmo Lähteenmäki, the chair of the
    Paperworkers' Union (Paperiliitto), predicted that Finland may be facing an
    era of group-specific collective agreements. According to Mr Lähteenmäki,
    the organisational arrangements on the employer side do not have any impact
    on the status of the Paperworkers' Union. He would like the Finnish Forest
    Industries' Federation (Metsäteollisuus ry) to remain as a bargaining party,
    but adds that the union is ready to draft nationwide agreements with groups
    of companies, if required by the situation.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The increasing influence of multinational companies (MNCs) over economic
    activity is well established. The United Nations estimates that the stock of
    investments held overseas by MNCs amounts to USD 2,730 billion, roughly
    double the total five years ago. One in five workers in the developed
    economies are employed by MNCs while intra-enterprise trade within MNCs has
    now become the single most important source of international economic
    exchange. The influence of MNCs is greater in Britain than in any other
    European country. Outward investment by UK MNCs constitutes nearly 12% of the
    total stock of investments by MNCs, second only to US MNCs. Moreover, inward
    investment into the UK amounted to just over 9% of the total, again surpassed
    only by the US.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In September 1997, the media workers' trade union IG Medien conducted a
    survey on working time and employment among its members. IG Medien, which
    organises workers in the printing industry and paper processing as well as
    journalists, writers, artists and actors, sent out a questionnaire to more
    than 160,000 members asking for their positions on further working time
    reduction. The questionnaire was accompanied by a letter from the president
    of IG Medien, Detlef Hensche, in which he expressed the need for an open
    debate on future working time policy within the union.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications