In the Namur province in Belgium, a joint organisation in the engineering
industry is proposing to act over 1997-8 as an interface between firms and
schools, in order to promote training within companies.
CNPF, the main French employers' association, elected Ernest-Antoine
Seillière as its president in December 1997. Mr Seillière restated his
fundamental opposition to the current bill to introduce the 35-hour working
week, and announced far-reaching reform of CNPF's organisation.
An agreement was signed in December 1997 by management and trade unions at
the Italian metalworking company Wam, covering flexibility, continuing
training and cuts in working hours to 35 hours a week for shiftworkers.
Both the use of flexible remuneration systems and financial participation
through share option schemes have increased markedly in the Netherlands in
the 1990s. Generally, employers applaud this development but within the trade
unions there are mixed feelings.
On Wednesday 17 December 1997, negotiations between the Confederation of
Vocational Unions (YS) and the Confederation of Norwegian Business and
Industry (NHO) regarding a new Basic Agreement broke down after only a few
hours of negotiations. In Norway, Basic Agreements between the main social
partner organisations lay down a set of principles and procedures which
regulate their relationship.
In November 1997, La Caixa - a prominent Spanish savings bank - signed an
agreement with the trade unions to promote the creation of permanent jobs.
This agreement is a model that will be followed in five other banks with
which the CC.OO trade union is negotiating similar terms.
In November 1997, organisations representing Greece's hotel sector employers
submitted their views on the country's new tripartite "Confidence Pact". The
employers' calls for greater flexibility have met with opposition from trade
In late 1997, the CGTP trade union confederation has amplified its criticisms
of Portugal's system of tripartite social concertation, pointing out
anomalies, claiming that it is manipulated, and raising the issue of the
social partners' representativeness.
On 16 December 1997 about 20,000 employees in the "social" or not-for-profit
sector - also known as the "white sector" - protested in the streets of
Brussels. They came from a wide variety of subsectors, including home care,
care for the elderly, residential youth work, sheltered accommodation,
hospitals and so on (BE9712127N ), but they all united behind the slogan:
"The elastic band is stretched too far."
According to the latest figures, over the first three quarters of 1997, GDP
grew by 2.2%, while the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
(Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, INSEE), puts
overall economic growth for the year at 2.5%. The public sector deficit stood
at 3% of GDP. Inflation was brought under control - 1.1% in 1997, down from
1.7% in 1996. The employment situation was varied. At the end of December
1997, unemployment stood at 3,027,800, representing a slight 1.7% improvement
on figures for the same period in 1996. These overall figures conceal quite
different rates of unemployment among men and women and various age groups:
unemployment among the young has decreased by 9% over the year; the
percentage of women in employment continues to increase but at a slower pace;
whereas the percentage of men in employment is continuing to fall, reflecting
the decline in sectors dominated by male employment. However, the majority of
women are employed on "non-traditional" contracts such as fixed-term or
part-time ones - almost 40% of women are recruited on fixed-term contracts.
There has also been a 1.2% increase in the number of long-term unemployed
people. At the end of December 1997, they accounted for 36.8% of overall
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Between 2021 and 2023 Eurofound is carrying out a pilot project on minimum wage on behalf of the European Commission. The question of how minimum wages and other forms of pay can be fixed for the self-employed is investigated as a part of this project through mapping national and sectoral approaches. Out of concern for the challenging conditions that the self-employed face, some Member States have established or are discussing establishing statutory forms of minimum pay for certain categories of self-employed.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.