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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The economic situation in Belgium was favourable in 1997, with growth rates
    reaching 2.1%. This was largely achieved through export growth, as domestic
    consumption remained weak. Inflation stood at 1.9%. According to the
    Institute for the National Accounts (Institut des Comptes Nationaux/Instituut
    voor de Nationale Rekeningen, ICN/INR), the 1997 budget deficit was 2.1 % of
    GDP. The improved economic prospects, and the 1998 budget measures seem set
    to reduce the deficit even further. The National Employment Office [1]
    (Office nationale de l'Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEm/RVA)
    reported the unemployment rate for 1997 at 13.3% for the total labour force
    (10.3% for men and 17.2% for women).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/national-employment-and-placement-service

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
    competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
    the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
    councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
    Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
    further industrial action in this area.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Worker representatives at Transmediterranea - the principal Spanish shipping
    line - called an indefinite strike as from 5 December 1997 to protest against
    redundancies and the announcement that six cargo ships will be sold.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Disagreements over the interpretation of key terms relating to the regulation
    of working time have delayed the tripartite consultation process for the
    transposition of the 1993 EC Directive on certain aspects of the organisation
    of working time into Portuguese law. The Directive has still not been
    transposed at the end of 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In December 1996, a committee consisting of experts from Greek trade unions
    and employers' organisations was set up to discuss the effects of reducing
    working time to 35 hours a week. However, on completion of its task in
    October 1997, it had become clear that the differences between the two sides
    were irreconcilable. We examine the main points of disagreement between the
    Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) and the employers.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1997, Italy's GDP increased by 1.7%: although low, this rate of growth was
    higher than in 1996. The rate of inflation continued to decrease, falling to
    to 1.7% in 1997 (according to the National Institute of Statistics, Istat).
    The unemployment rate stood at an average of 12.3% (Istat), which represented
    a growth of 0.2 percentage points compared with 1996. However, the
    unemployment rate is very different depending on the area: it is particularly
    high in the South, where it reaches 22.2%, while it is lower in the Centre
    (10.2%) and in the North (7.3% in the North-West and 5.7% in the North-East).
    In 1997, the Government's deficit-reduction policies, which received a
    particular impetus after 1993, continued, and the public deficit stood at
    2.7% of GDP in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Recent research in the Netherlands shows that setting a legal standard for
    the manual lifting of loads would lead to considerable improvements in
    working conditions for a large group of employees. However, employers'
    organisations and unions are divided on this subject.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Both the trade unions and the employers' organisations have reacted to the
    Spanish Government's position at the special EU Employment Summit held in
    Luxembourg in November 1997. The former have expressed their profound
    dissatisfaction, while the latter support the attitude of the Government, but
    would like to see more measures that would allow companies to generate
    employment. The reaction of the opposition parties and public opinion in
    general was also very critical.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Measures to improve the working environment and the health and safety of the
    workforce have been the cornerstone of the European social dimension since
    the inception of the European Communities. Articles 117 and 118 of the Treaty
    of Rome called for the Community to be instrumental in achieving the
    improvement of living and working conditions in the Member States. These
    provisions were strengthened under Article 118A [1] of the Single European
    Act (which came into force in 1987), and a Directive [2] on the introduction
    of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at
    the workplace (89/391/EEC) was subsequently adopted by the Labour and Social
    Affairs Council in June 1989. This framework Directive, intended as a
    spearhead for other individual Directives, lays down fundamental requirements
    for health and safety at work, including the obligations of employers and
    workers, the establishment and maintenance of prevention, protection and
    emergency services at the workplace, comprehensive information and training
    and consultation of workers in all matters relating to health and safety. The
    adoption of the framework Directive led to a spate of Community legislation
    on health and safety related issues between 1989 and 1992. The individual
    Directives fall into three main categories. They aim to:

    [1] http://www.europa.eu.int/abc/obj/treaties/en/entr6d08.htm#Article_118a
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c11113.htm

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications